This Week in History 4/3 – 4/9

Historyby Tamera Lynn Kraft

This Week in History

April 3:

  • US Civil War: Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond (1865)
  • WW2: US President Harry Truman signs Marshall Plan giving $5B aid to 16 European countries (1948)
  • The first portable cell phone call is made in New York City (1973)
  • Super Outbreak where 148 tornadoes in the East, South, and Midwest United States killed approximately 315 people, with nearly 5,500 injured (1974)
  • US Revolutionary War:Congress authorizes privateers to attack British vessels
  • A Hawaiian surfs on highest wave ever – a 50-foot tidal wave (1868)
  • Pony Express is born (1860)
  • Adolf Clarenbach, first martyr of the Protestant reformation, arrested (1520)
  • George Washington receives honorary Ll.D. degree from Harvard College (1776)
  • Jesse James is murdered (1886)
  • Joseph Stalin appointed General Secretary of the Russian Communist Party by Vladimir Lenin (1922)
  • Highest mountain in North America, Alaska’s Mt McKinley, claimed to have been first climbed by 4 local men (1910)
  • First airplane flight over Mt Everest (1933)
  • Wood block alarm invented, when alarm rang, it dropped 20 wood blocks (1882)
  • US President Barack Obama officially secures Democratic presidential nomination (2012)

April 4:

  • Dr. Martin Luther King is assassinated by James Earl Ray (1968)
  • Asa Mahan, first president of Oberlin College who was known for educational reforms and who allowed blacks and women to be educated alongside white men, died (1889)
  • Congress decides on the US flag: 13 red & white stripes & 20 stars, stars increase according to number of states (1818)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO treaty signed in Washington DC (1949)
  • Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800 (1975)
  • US Civil War: Battle of Yorktown, first battle of the war (1862)
  • US Civil War: Lee’s army arrives at Amelia Courthouse where Lee will surrender six days later (1865)
  • Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen (1975)
  • US Civil War: US begins Peninsular Campaign aimed at capturing Richmond (1862)
  • Future German reformer Martin Luther was ordained a priest in the Roman Catholic church (1507)
  • James II issued a Declaration of Indulgence allowing full liberty of worship in England (1687)
  • Israel & Jordan sign armistice agreement (1949)
  • Casparus van Wooden patents chocolate milk powder (1828)

April 5:

  • Pocahontas marries John Rolf (1614)
  • Hans Nielsen Hauge, founder of Norwegian Pietism who was jailed often for preaching the power of the Holy Spirit and spiritual renewal, experienced a spiritual renewal where he was “filled with divine joy” and instructed to preach the Gospel throughout Norway (1796)
  • US President Dwight Eisenhower inaugurated the Presidential Prayer Breakfast (1953)
  • US Civil War: Siege of Yorktown (1862)
  • Saint Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop (456 AD)
  • George Washington casts first presidential veto (1792)
  • World Trade Center, then the world’s tallest building, opens in New York (1974)
  • WW2: Membership in Hitler Youth, which includes Sunday meetings, becomes obligatory (1939)
  • Firestone Company put their inflatable tires into production (1923)
  • WW2: 270 inhabitants of the Greek town of Kleisoura are executed by the Germans (1944)
  • Mayflower sails from Plymouth on a return trip to England (1621)
  • Julius & Ethel Rosenberg, Soviet spies, sentenced to death (1951)
  • Matthew Simpson, powerful evangelist and abolitionist, saddled his horse and rode out on his first circuit (1834)
  • Anne Sullivan teaches “water” to Helen Keller (1887)
  • Death of Robert Raikes, English philanthropist regarded as the founder of the modern Sunday School movement (1811)
  • Vietnam War: Massive antiwar demonstrations occur in many U.S. cities (1969)
  • Winston Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister (1955)
  • Earth’s 1st contact with the extra-terrestrial Vulcan species in the Star Trek universe (2063)

April 6:

  • This day is believed by some Biblical scholars to be the actual date of the historical birth of Jesus Christ (6 BC)
  • First modern Olympic Games take place in Greece, American James Connolly, wins first Olympic gold medal in modern history (1896)
  • WW1: US declares war on Germany, enters World War I (1917)
  • First Moravians arrive in Savannah, Georgia with the intent of becoming missionaries to Native Americans (1735)
  • First US Congress begins regular sessions at Federal Hall in New York City (1789)
  • US Civil War: Battle of Sayler’s Creek during US Civil War, 1/4 of Lee’s army cut off (1865)
  • North Pole reached by Americans Robert Peary & Matthew Henson (1909)
  • US Civil War: Battle of Shiloh, Union defeats Confederacy in SW Tennessee (1862)
  • George Eastman begins selling his Kodak flexible rolled film for the first time (1889)
  • First animated cartoon copyrighted (1906)
  • Electric starter first appeared in cars (1912)
  • Post It Notes introduced (1980)
  • Cape Colony, the 1st European settlement in South Africa, established by Dutch East India Company under John of Riebeeck (1652)
  • King Charles II signs Carolina Charter (1663)
  • Jews of Prussia granted equality (1848)
  • TV Dinner was first put on sale by Swanson & Sons (1954)
  • American Radio Relay League, organization for hams, founded (1914)
  • English militia shoots prisoners, 100’s killed (1815)
  • Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, ends tax on men with beards (1722)
  • Grand Army of the Republic forms in Decatur, Illinois (1866)
  • Mormon church leader Brigham Young, at age 67, married his 27th and last wife (1868)
  • Lailat-ul Qadar, night Koran supposedly descended to Earth (610 AD)

April 7:

  • Possible date of Jesus crucifixion (30 AD)
  • The Internet’s symbolic birth date: publication of RFC 1 (1969)
  • Ludwig von Beethoven’s first composition Missa Solemnis (Solemn Mass) premiered (1824)
  • English chemist John Walker invents wooden matches (1827)
  • U.S. troops capture Baghdad; Saddam Hussein’s regime falls two days later (2003)
  • First settlement in Ohio at Marietta (1788)
  • Mississippi Territory organized (1798)
  • Slave revolt in New York kills 6 white men, 21 African Americans executed (1712)
  • First brain tumor operation under local anesthetic performed by Dr K Winfield Ney (1923)
  • US President Jimmy Carter breaks relations with Iran during hostage crisis (1980)
  • Warren G. Harding’s Interior Secretary, Albert B. Fall, leases the Teapot Dome oil reserves to Harry Sinclair setting in motion what comes to be known as the Teapot Dome scandals (1922)
  • First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis, a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I (529 AD)
  • US President Eisenhower in news conference first to voice fear of a “domino-effect” of communism in Indo-China (1954)
  • Workers Party of America (NYC) becomes official communist party (1923)
  • Francis Xavier leaves Lisbon on a mission to the Portuguese East Indies (1541)
  • Oklahoma ends prohibition after 51 years (1959)
  • Supreme Court strikes down laws prohibiting private possession of obscene material (1969)
  • The World Trade Organisation rules in favor of the United States in its long-running trade dispute with the European Union over bananas (1999)

April 8:

  • German theologian and martyr, Dietrich Bonhoeffer hanged by Nazis, his last recorded words, “This is the end – – for me the beginning” (1945)
  • Soviet Union issued regulations outlawing almost all public and many private expressions of Christianity (1929)
  • Premiere of Mozart’s violin sonata K379 (1781)
  • James Chalmer, missionary to Papua, and several Christian native evangelists, after being invited to a banquet, were surrounded by armed savages, clubbed to death and their bodies were cooked with sago and served as the main course of the promised feast (1901)
  • Shearith Israel, first Jewish congregation organized in America, consecrated their synagogue in New York City (1730)
  • WW2: U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt freezes wages and prices (1943)
  • Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, proves the quadratic reciprocity law, the ability to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic (1796)
  • First fire escape patented, wicker basket on a pulley & chain (1766)
  • League of Nations assembles for last time (1946)
  • The American Theological Society was organized at Union Theological Seminary (1912)
  • Televangelist Jimmy Swaggert was defrocked by the Assemblies of God following the disclosure of his involvement with a prostitute (1988)
  • South African State pass the Industrial Conciliation Act No 11 which excluded blacks from membership of registered trade unions and prohibited registration of black trade unions (1924)
  • Smoking banned in Pentagon & all US military bases (1994)

April 9:

  • Azusa Street three year revival begins under leadership of black evangelist William Seymour when tongues break out during a service (1919)
  • US Civil War: Robert E. Lee and 26,765 troops surrender at Appomattox Court House to US Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant ending the Civil War (1865)
  • Civil Rights Bill passes over President Andrew Johnson’s veto (1866)
  • Richard Allen became America’s first black bishop and organized the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1819)
  • NASA introduces America’s first astronauts to the press: Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper Jr., John H. Glenn Jr., Virgil “Gus” Grissom, Walter Schirra Jr., Alan Shepard Jr., and Donald Slayton (1959)
  • Baghdad falls to U.S. forces ending the invasion of Iraqi (2003)
  • US Civil War: Union surgeon Mary Edwards Walker is captured by Confederate troops and arrested as a spy during US Civil War (1864)
  • US Revolutionary War: John Hancock refuses to allow two British customs agents to go below deck of his ship, considered by some to be the first act of physical resistance to British authority in the colonies (1764)
  • Tornadoes striking West Texas & Oklahoma kill 169, injuring 1,300 (1947)
  • Martin Luther King Jr., buried in Atlanta (1968)
  • Hudson Bay Company cedes its territory to Canada (1869)
  • Samuel R Percy patents dried milk (1872)
  • Italy & US anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti given death sentences (1927)
  • Winston Churchill becomes 1st honorary US citizen (1963)
  • Funeral of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother at Westminster Abbey UK as more than a million people line the streets (2002)
  • Edward V aged 12 succeeds his father Edward IV as king of England. He is never crowned, and disappears presumed murdered, after incarceration in the Tower of London with his younger brother Richard (1483)

This Week in History 3/27 – 4/2

by Tamera Lynn Kraft

This Week in History

March 27:

  • President Andrew Johnson vetoes civil rights bill which later becomes 14th amendment (1866)
  • US Revolutionary War: Thomas Jefferson elected to the Continental Congress (1775)
  • Typhoid Mary, Mary Mallon, is arrested and returned to quarantine on North Brother Island, New York after spending five years evading health authorities and causing several further outbreaks of typhoid
  • Elizabeth Dirks, one of the first woman preachers of the reformation, was martyred by drowning (1549)
  • WW2: Children’s Aktion-Nazis collect all the Jewish children of Lovno (1944)
  • First Japanese cherry blossom trees planted in Washington, D.C. (1912)
  • Spaniard Juan Ponce de León and his expedition first sight Florida (1513)
  • WW2: General Eisenhower declares German defenses on Western Front broken (1945)
  • First long-distance telephone call from Boston to New York (1884)
  • First successful blood transfusion (1914)
  • 583 die in aviation’s worst ever disaster when two Boeing 747s collide at Tenerife airport (1977)
  • Charles I, King Of England, Scotland & Ireland, ascends English throne (1625)
  • The modern shoelace, string and shoe holes, invented in England (1790)
  • WW2: Japan leaves League of Nations (1933)
  • The United States Government establishes a permanent navy and authorizes the building of six frigates (1794)
  • Archbishop Joseph Francis Rummel ordered all Roman Catholic schools in the New Orleans diocese to end segregation (1962)
  • Steve McQueen makes his network TV debut in Goodyear Playhouse (1955)
  • First Mormon temple dedicated in Kirtland, Ohio (1836)
  • Lillian Trasher, missionary to Egypt known as Mother of the Nile, left Egypt by order of the British government but returned 10 years later (1919)
  • Andrew Rankin patents the urinal (1866)
  • Nikita Khrushchev becomes Soviet Premier as well as First Secretary of the Communist Party (1958)

March 28:

  • Worst accident in the history of the U.S. nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2 reactor at Three Mile Island fails to close (1979)
  • New York State abolishes slavery (1799)
  • Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1920 affects the Great Lakes region and Deep South states (1920)
  • The United States State Department releases the Acheson-Lilienthal Report, outlining a plan for the international control of nuclear power. (1946)
  • Bethel African Methodist Church of Philadelphia becomes first African church in US (1796)
  • Senate censures US President Andrew Jackson for taking federal deposits from Bank of US (1834)
  • First ambulance goes into service (1866)
  • US Salvation Army officially organized (1885)
  • “Greatest Show On Earth” was formed by PT Barnum & James A Bailey (1881)
  • Jews are expelled from Tel Aviv & Jaffa by Turkish authorities (1917)
  • Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate (37 AD)
  • Nathaniel Briggs patents a washing machine (1797)
  • Paris is sacked by Viking raiders (845 AD)
  • Mexican American War: Mexico drops diplomatic relations with US (1845)
  • Birth of Bill Gaither, contemporary Gospel songwriter and vocal artist (1936)
  • Scottish Parliament passed the Rescissory Act to overthrow Presbyterianism and restore the Anglican episcopacy to Scotland (1661)

March 29:

  • Vietnam War: US troops withdraw from Vietnam (1974)
  • John Winthrop, first governor of Massachusetts Colony, sets sail for America (1630)
  • Construction is authorized of the Great National Pike, better known as the Cumberland Road, becoming the first United States federal highway (1806)
  • Niagara Falls stops flowing for 30 hours due to an ice jam (1848)
  • First Swedish colonists in America established a Lutheran settlement at Fort Christiana in the Colony of Delaware (1638)
  • Beethoven debuts as pianist in Vienna (1795)
  • Congress first approves building of Lincoln Memorial (1867)
  • WW2: Movie star Jimmy Stewart is promoted to full colonel, one of the few Americans to rise from private to colonel in four years (1945)
  • Republic of Switzerland forms (1798)
  • Julius & Ethel Rosenberg are convicted of spying for the Russians (1951)
  • The Republic of Ireland becomes the first country in the world to ban smoking in all work places, including bars and restaurants (2004)
  • Ohio makes it illegal for children under 18 & women to work more than 10 hours a day (1852)
  • Thousands of Whites massacred in Haiti (1804)
  • 23rd Amendment to the US Constitution ratified, allowing Washington, D.C. residents to vote in presidential elections (1961)
  • 20,000 attend Ludwig Von Beethoven’s burial in Vienna (1827)
  • Birth of Winfield Scott Weeden, hymn writer and author of I Surrender All who led music and singing schools for the YMCA and Christian Endeavor (1847)
  • 8 Ohio National Guardsmen indicted for shooting 4 Kent State students (1976)

March 30:

  • 15th Amendment to the US constitution is adopted, guarantees right to vote regardless of race (1870)
  • First recorded passage of Halley’s Comet (240 BC)
  • All imperial lands, as well as lands belonging to monasteries, were confiscated by the Russian provisional government (1917)
  • US buys Alaska from Russia for $7,200,000, 2 cents an acre, criticized as Seward’s Folly (1867)
  • US President Reagan shot & wounded by John W Hinckley III (1981)
  • US Civil War: Texas becomes last confederate state readmitted to Union (1870)
  • Ether used as an anesthetic for first time (1842)
  • Congress combined East & West Florida into Florida Territory (1812)
  • Pencil with attached eraser patented (1858)
  • Florida territorial government established (1870)
  • WW2: Defecting German pilot delivers a Messerschmidt Me 262A-1 to Americans (1945)
  • Vietnam War: North Vietnamese troops enter South Vietnam (1972)
  • Birth of Moses Maimonides, medieval Jewish scholar (1135)
  • Gandhi announces resistance against Rowlatt Act allowing incarceration without trial in India (1919)
  • Dalai Lama fled China & was granted political asylum in India (1959)

March 31:

  • Thomas P Mundy of Perth Amboy, New Jersey becomes the first black to vote in US (1870)
  • WW2: German Republic gives power to Hitler (1933)
  • Vietnam War: President Johnson denies further action in Vietnam (1965)
  • The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following a rebellion attempt (1822)
  • Eiffel Tower officially opens in Paris, tallest man-made structure for 41 years (1889)
  • US Civil War: Confederacy takes over mint at New Orleans (1861)
  • First daylight savings time in US goes into effect (1918)
  • Vietnam War: US orders the first combat troops to Vietnam (1965)
  • During British Civil War, English Parliament makes the Humble Petition to Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell offering him the crown: he declines (1657)
  • Ferdinand and Isabella banished all Jews from Spain who did not convert to Christianity (1492)
  • Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade (1146)

April 1:

  • English pranksters begin popularizing the annual tradition of April Fools’ Day by playing practical jokes on each other (1700)
  • Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs found Apple Computer in the garage of Jobs’ parents house in Cupertino, California (1976)
  • Samuel Morey patents internal combustion engine (1826)
  • US Air Force Academy forms (1954)
  • Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, in Washington DC. opened to train and teach freed slaves (1868)
  • Ayatollah Khomeini calls for an Islamic Republic in Iran (1974)
  • US Civil War: First wartime conscription law in US goes into effect (1863)
  • WW2: Nazi Germany begins persecution of Jews by boycotting Jewish businesses (1933)
  • US Civil War: Battle of 5 Forks Virginia, signalling end of Lee’s army (1865)
  • US President Richard Nixon signs bill limiting cigarette advertisements (1970)
  • WW2: US forces invade Okinawa (1945)
  • WW2: Nazis forbid Jews access to cafés (1941)
  • WW2: Heinrich Himmler becomes Police Commander of Germany (1933)
  • Bonnie & Clyde kill 2 police officers turning public against them (1934)
  • US Supreme Court rules jurors cannot be barred from serving due to race (1991)
  • US Civil War: Shenandoah Valley campaign (1862)
  • First Jewish immigrants to Israel disembark at Port of Eilat (1947)
  • First radio tube made of metal announced (1935)
  • US Navy takes over Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay (1941)
  • Weight Watchers forms (1946)
  • Cotton Mather’s four-day-old son dies, and witchcraft is blamed (1693)
  • International Exhibition opens in Paris (1867)
  • First dish washing machine marketed (1889)
  • New Orleans businessman Oliver Pollock creates the “$” symbol (1778)
  • Ruins of Pompeii rediscovered by Spaniard Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre (1748)

April 2:

  • Assemblies of God organized (1914)
  • Mordecai Ham, evangelist who led Billy Graham to Christ, was born (1877)
  • “Electric Theatre”, the first full-time movie theater in the United States, opens in Los Angeles, California (1902)
  • The Coinage Act is passed establishing the United States Mint and authorizing the $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, ½ dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime (1792)
  • US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia (1865)
  • WW1: US President Wilson asks Congress to declare war against Germany (1917)
  • Explorer Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain as the first known European to reach Florida (1513)
  • Jeannette Rankin begins her term as first woman member of US House of Representatives (1917)
  • Vietnam War: Thousands of civilian refugees flee from the Quang Ngai Province in front of advancing North Vietnamese troops (1975)
  • Albert Einstein lectures in New York City on his new “Theory of Relativity” (1921)
  • First Easter egg roll held on White House lawn (1877)
  • Charles Lindbergh turns over $50,000 as ransom for kidnapped son (1932)
  • 4 US passengers killed by bomb at TWA counter Athens Airport Greece (1986)
  • London prison for debtors closed (1884)
  • Mills Committee declares baseball was invented by Abner Doubleday (1908)
  • Teenage girl strikes out Babe Ruth & Lou Gehrig in an exhibition game in Chattanooga, Tennessee (1931)

This Week in History 3/20 – 3/26

This Week in History

March 20:

  • Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe published her classic antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
  • WW2: Dachau, first Nazi concentration camp, completed (1930)
  • US Supreme Court affirms its right to review state court decisions (1816)
  • President Lyndon B. Johnson notifies Alabama’s Governor George Wallace that he will use Alabama National Guard to protect Civil Rights march from Selma to Montgomery (1965)
  • Great Fire of Boston destroys 349 buildings (1760)
  • WW1: After the sinking of 3 more American merchant ships, US President Woodrow Wilson meets with cabinet, who agree that war is inevitable (1917)
  • Alessandro Volta reports his discovery of the electric battery (1800)
  • 180 tonne blue whale caught in South Atlantic setting a record (1947)
  • American missionary David Brainerd, age 28, ended two-and-one-half years of labor among the colonial Indians of New England, after having been continually plagued with tuberculosis with he would die of seven months later (1747)
  • Birth of Fred Rogers, host of public television’s longest running children’s program Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood (1928)
  • WW2: Final ratification of peace treaty restoring sovereignty to Japan by US Senate (1952)
  • Vietnam War: US President Nixon proclaims he will end the war in 1970 (1969)
  • Napoleon enters Paris after escape from Elba, begins 100-day rule (1815)
  • United Dutch East Indian Company forms (1602)

March 21:

  • Slave ship captain John Newton, author of Amazing Grace, accepted Christ as Lord and Savoir during a fierce storm (1747)
  • Johann Sebastian Bach was born at Eisenach, Germany (1685)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. begins march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama (1965)
  • US Revolutionary War: Massacre at Hancock’s Bridge when at least 20 members of the Salem militia lost their lives, some after attempting to surrender, as Loyalists exclaimed, “Spare no one! Give no quarter!” (1778)
  • US President Harry Truman signs Executive Order 9835 requiring all federal employees to have allegiance to the United States (1947)
  • Journalist Henry Morton Stanley begins his famous expedition to Africa (1871)
  • Persia officially renamed Iran (1935)
  • Julius & Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage (1951)
  • The Association of International Mission Services was founded to promote the work of foreign missions among independent Pentecostal and charismatic churches (1985)
  • Olaudah Equiano aka Gustavus Vassa, a freed slave, petitions King George III and Queen Charlotte, to free enslaved Africans (1788)
  • Civil Code of Napoleon adopted in France (1804)
  • Author Louis L’Amour born (1908)

March 22:

  • Nicia Council set date for Easter as the Sunday after the first full moon following the Spring equinox (325 AD)
  • Date Gutenberg Bible might have been first published (1457)
  • US Revolutionary War: Stamp Act passed (1765)
  • Thomas Jefferson becomes the first US Secretary of State under President Washington (1790)
  • US Revolutionary War: Stamp Act passed; first direct British tax on colonists (1765)
  • Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony (1638)
  • First American Indian, Powhattan, massacre of whites Jamestown Virginia, 347 slain (1622)
  • In colonial Massachusetts, the Plymouth Colony made a treaty with the neighboring Indians which both sides kept for fifty years (1621)
  • The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line becomes the world’s first scheduled airline (1914)
  • Niagara Falls runs out of water because of a drought (1903)
  • First patent for lasers, granted to Arthur Schawlow & Charles Townes (1960)
  • First shopping mall opened in Southfield, Michigan (1954)
  • WW2: Jimmy Stewart is inducted into the Army, becoming the first major American movie star to wear a military uniform in World War II (1941)
  • WW2: Jimmy Stewart flies his 12th combat mission leading the 2nd Bomb Wing in an attack on Berlin (1945)
  • First US nursing school chartered (1861)
  • Illinois becomes first state to require sexual equality in employment (1872)
  • US is the first nation to recognize the new government of Russia (1917)
  • Vietnam War: US confirms its troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong (1965)
  • First colonial legislation prohibiting gambling enacted (1630)
  • Edmunds Act adopted by the US to suppress polygamy, 1300 men later imprisoned under the act (1882)

March 23:

  • US Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry made his “Give me liberty or give me death” speech (1775)
  • Koldewey began excavation in ancient Babylon and unearthed many finds that proved Biblical texts about the city (1899)
  • 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party re-establishes a five-member Politburo which becomes the center of political power in the Soviet Union. Original members Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Lev Kamenev and Nikolai Krestinsky (1919)
  • In London, composer George Frederic Handel’s famous oratorio Messiah was performed for the first time (1744)
  • WW2: German Reichstag grants Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers in Enabling Act (1933)
  • WW2: Largest operation in Pacific War when 1,500 US Navy ships bomb Japanese island of Okinawa (1945)
  • Wright brothers obtain airplane patent (1903)
  • US Civil War: Congress passes 2nd Reconstruction Act over President Andrew Johnson’s veto (1867)
  • WW2: In Enabling Act, German Reichstag grants Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers (1933)
  • WW2: US move native-born of Japanese ancestry into detention centers (1942)
  • English Puritans John Greenwood and Henry Barrowe tried and sentenced to death on the charge of devising and circulating seditious books (1593)
  • Elisha Otis installs his 1st elevator at 488 Broadway in New York City (1857)
  • Waltham Abbey in Essex became the last monastery in England to transfer its allegiance from the Catholic Church to the newly-established Church of England (1540)
  • Mormon John Doyle Lee was executed by a firing squad for masterminding the Mountain Meadows Massacre which killed a wagon train of 127 Arkansas Methodist emigrants bound for California (1877)
  • Elisha Otis’ 1st elevator installed (1857)
  • Draper takes first successful photo of the Moon (1840)
  • Streetcar patented (1858)
  • Flour rolling mill patented (1880)
  • First recorded use of “OK”, oll korrect, in Boston’s Morning Post (1839)

March 24:

  • US Revolutionary War: Britain enacts Quartering Act requiring colonists to provide temporary housing to British soldiers (1765)
  • Fanny Crosby, blind author of over 2,000 hymns, was born
  • William Leddra became the last Quaker in America to be martyred when he was hung in Boston (1661)
  • Roger Williams is granted a charter to colonize Rhode Island (1664)
  • El Salvador’s leading human rights activist, Archbishop Oscar Romero, was assassinated by a sniper while saying mass in a hospital chapel (1980)
  • Planet Pluto named (1930)
  • First automobile sold (1898)
  • German scientist Robert Koch discovers bacillus cause of TB (1882)
  • John Antes, first American missionary to Egypt, was born (1740)
  • Scottish King James VI, son of Mary Queen of Scots, becomes King James I of England joining the English and Scottish crowns. (1603)
  • Canada gives its black citizens the right to vote (1837)
  • Mormon Joseph Smith beaten, tarred, & feathered in Ohio (1832)
  • WW2: Largest one-day airborne drop, 600 transports & 1300 gliders (1945)
  • John D. Rockefeller Jr donates NYC East River site to the UN (1947)
  • Elvis Presley joins the army (1958)

March 25:

  • First Easter, according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus (31 AD)
  • Roman Church historian Dionysius Exiguus determined this date for when the Annunciation took place (1 AD)
  • US Revolutionary War: British Parliament passes the Boston Port Act, closing the port of Boston and demanding that the city’s residents pay for tea dumped into the harbor during the Boston Tea Party (1774)
  • US Revolutionary War: Continental Congress authorized a medal for George Washington (1777)
  • RCA manufactures 1st color TV set – 12½” screen at $1,000 (1954)
  • US Civil War: First US Army Medal of Honor awarded (1863)
  • Modern Olympics began in Athens, Greece (1896)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. led 25,000 to state capitol in Montgomery, Alabama (1965)
  • In NYC, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory catches fire killing 145, all but 13 girls (1911)
  • US Supreme court rules “poll tax” unconstitutional (1966)
  • Conrad Grebel arrived in St. Gall, Switzerland preaching about the need for repentance and baptism and illegally baptizing hundreds (1525)
  • Great Awakening preacher George Whitefield started building Bethesda Orphanage which later became Bethesda School for Boys in Savannah, Georgia (1740)
  • American missionary and martyr Jim Elliot reflected in his journal, “When it comes time to die, make sure that all you have to do is die” (1951)
  • Henry Hudson embarks on an exploration for Dutch East India Co (1609)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh renews Humphrey Gilbert’s patent to explore North America (1584)
  • British Parliament abolishes slave trade throughout the British Empire; penalty of £120 per slave introduced for ship captains (1807)
  • US Socialist Party forms in Indianapolis (1900)
  • Under charter granted to Lord Baltimore, first settlers found Catholic colony of Maryland (1634)
  • Great Dayton Flood (1913)
  • Robert the Bruce crowned Robert I, King of Scots (1306)
  • Richard I the Lion Heart, King of England, is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6 (1199)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh renews Humphrey Gilbert’s patent to explore North America (1584)
  • Greece gains independence from Turkey (1821)

March 26:

  • Birth of George Smith, famed English Assyriologist who during several expeditions to the site of ancient Nineveh unearthed over 3,000 cuneiform tablets including one which told the story of an ancient deluge similar to Noah’s Flood (1840)
  • WW2: Iwo Jima occupied and US flag raised after 18,000 Japanese & 6,000 Americans killed (1945)
  • Dr Jonas Salk announces vaccine to prevent polio (1953)
  • Focus on the Family is founded by Dr. James Dobson (1977)
  • Robert Richford Roberts, Methodist circuit rider who rode 5,400 miles the last year of his life, died at age 65 (1843)
  • Territory of Orleans organizes in Louisiana Purchase (1804)
  • Faye Edgerton, missionary to the Navajo who translated the Bible in Native American languages, was born (1889)
  • WW2: Elsie S Ott becomes first woman awarded US Air Force Medal (1943)
  • US Civil War: Voters in West Virginia approve gradual emancipation of slaves (1863)
  • Joseph Smith first published The Book of Mormon (1830)
  • Congress orders removal of Indians east of Mississippi to Louisiana (1804)
  • US forbids immigration to criminals, anarchists, paupers & the sick (1910)
  • This Side of Paradise, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s first novel, is published (1920)
  • Congress appropriates $50,000 for Inter-American highway (1930)

This Week in History 3/13-3/19

This Week in History

March 13:

  • US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis signs bill authorizing use of slaves as soldiers (1865)
  • Uncle Sam cartoon figure made its debut in the NY Lantern weekly (1852)
  • Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico (1519)
  • William Herschel sees what he thinks is a “comet” but is actually the discovery of the planet Uranus (1781)
  • Clyde Tombaugh announces discovery of Pluto at Lowell Observatory (1930)
  • Senate begins US President Andrew Johnson’s impeachment trial (1868)
  • WW2: Failed assassin attempt on Hitler during Smolensk-Rastenburg flight (1943)
  • The Butler Law in Tennessee makes it unlawful to teach anything but creationism (1925)
  • Great Blizzard of 1888 rages (1888)
  • US adopts Standard Time (1884)
  • American banks allowed to reopen after a government imposed bank holiday (1933)
  • Cambridge College renamed Harvard for clergyman John Harvard (1639)

March 14:

  • Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin (1794)
  • Jack Ruby sentenced to death for murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the murderer of JFK (1964)
  • JFK’s body moved from temporary grave to a permanent memorial (1967)
  • On board HMS Monarch, his own flagship, British Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for neglecting his duty (1757)
  • War of 1812: Congress authorizes war bonds to finance the war (1812)
  • African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded (1821)
  • WW2: Nazi occupiers of Holland forbid Jewish owned companies (1941)
  • By Presidential order, the US excludes Japanese laborers from entering the country (1907)
  • John D. Rockefeller gives $100 million to Rockefeller Foundation (1913)
  • FBI’s “10 Most Wanted Fugitives” program begins (1950)

March 15:

  • US Revolutionary War: In an emotional speech in Newburgh, New York, George Washington asks his officers not to support the Newburgh Conspiracy; the threatened coup never takes place (1783)
  • Julius Caesar is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus and several other Roman senators on the Ides of March (44 BC)
  • First US presidential press conference by Woodrow Wilson (1913)
  • The first Internet domain name, symbolics.com is registered (1985)
  • Maine admitted as 23rd US state (1820)
  • WW2: Hermann Goering says 100-200 church bells enough for Germany, smelt the rest (1940)
  • Five research groups announce the discovery of anti-matter (1962)
  • First escalator patented by inventor Jesse W Reno (1892)
  • Cleveland establishes first small claims court (1913)
  • First state contraceptive clinic opens in Raleigh NC (1937)
  • Pluto again becomes outermost planet (1999)

March 16:

  • Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king (597 AD)
  • WW2: Adolf Hitler orders German rearmament in violation of The Treaty of Versailles (1935)
  • US Civil War: Edward Clark became Governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who was evicted from the office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy (1861)
  • First publication of an article by Joseph Lister outlining the discovery of antiseptic surgery (1867)
  • Law signed to establish US Military Academy in West Point, New York (1802)
  • Native American chief visits colony of Plymouth Massachusetts (1621)
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter published (1850)
  • Mississippi House of Representatives formally abolishes slavery & ratifies 13th Amendment (1995)
  • Barnum & Bailey Circus debuts (1881)
  • US Senate ratifies treaty establishing the Red Cross (1882)
  • Holy spirit glides above fire in “the miracle of Amsterdam” (1345)
  • Dow-Jones hits record 4069.15 (1995)

March 17:

  • Saint Patrick, missionary to Ireland, died (461 AD)
  • Saint Patrick aged 16 is carried off to Ireland as a slave (432 AD)
  • Carrollton Massacre in Mississippi when 20 African Americans are killed (1886)
  • Golda Meir becomes Israel’s 4th Prime Minister (1969)
  • Amanda Berry, evangelist and song writer who was born a slave, become a Christian (1856)
  • Texas abolishes slavery for a short time (1836)
  • John Philip Holland achieves successful test runs of the first modern submarine off Staten Island (1898)
  • Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Philippines (1521)
  • Rubber band patented by Stephen Perry of London (1845)
  • First St. Patrick’s Day celebration held in United States (1737)
  • WW2: General Doug MacArthur arrives in Australia to become supreme commander (1942)
  • At a show in Paris 71 Vincent van Gogh paintings cause a sensation, 11 years after his death (1901)
  • Italy declares independence; Kingdom of Italy proclaimed (1861)

March 18:

  • Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II crowns himself King of Jerusalem (1229)
  • US Civil War: Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time (1865)
  • WW2: Benito Mussolini joins Hitler in Germany’s war against France & Britain (1940)
  • Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov, leaving his spacecraft Voskhod 2 for 12 minutes, becomes the first person to walk in space (1965)
  • First free elections in East Germany, Conservatives beat Communists (1990)
  • President Hayes appoints Frederick Douglass marshal of Washington DC (1875)
  • 2 black players, Jackie Robinson & Nate Moreland, request a tryout with the Chicago White Sox (1942)
  • Hawaii signs a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights (1874)
  • US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Hawaii statehood bill (1959)
  • According to legend, Tenochtitlan is founded on this date (1325)
  • Morgan Earp is assassinated by outlaws while playing billiards in Tombstone (1882)
  • Phoebe, a moon of Saturn is discovered by William Pickering (1899)
  • British magistrates in India sentence Mahatma Gandhi to 6 years imprisonment for disobedience (1922)
  • Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, is burned at the stake by King Philip IV of France (1314)
  • Largest art robbery in US history: 13 works of art worth over $500 million are stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston (1990)

March 19:

  • US Congress authorizes time zones & approves daylight saving time (1918)
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony granted land by England (1628)
  • WW2: FDR orders men between 45 & 64 to register for non-military duty (1942)
  • WW2: Adolf Hitler issues “Nero Decree” to destroy all German factories (1945)
  • Boston, Massachusetts incorporated as a city (1822)
  • Chicago 8 indicted in aftermath of Chicago Democratic convention (1969)
  • Invasion of Iraq by American and British led coalition begins (2003)
  • US Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles for 2nd time refusing to ratify League of Nations’ covenant (1920)
  • WW2: 800 killed as Kamikaze attacked USS Franklin off Japan (1945)
  • First US bank robbery (1831)
  • 200 members of Peking imperial family/court commit suicide in loyalty to the Emperor (1644)
  • Pluto photographed for first time (1915)
  • 200 members of Peking imperial family/court commit suicide in loyalty to the Emperor (1644)
  • US Civil War: Confederate cruiser SS Georgiana destroyed on her maiden voyage with a cargo of munitions, and medicines then valued over $1,000,000. Wreck discovered exactly 102 years later by teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence (1863)

This Week in History 3/6 – 3/12

HistoryThis Week in History

March 6:

  • Missionary to India, Amy Carmichael committed her first of many kidnappings by sheltering a young girl dedicated to the Hindu gods and forced into prostitution (1901)
  • US Supreme Court rules Africans cannot be US citizens in the Dred Scott Decision (1857)
  • Battle of Alamo ends when 1,500-3,000 Mexicans overwhelm the Texans at the Alamo, killing 182-257 Texans including William Travis, Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett (1836)
  • First US alternating current power plant starts in Massachusetts (1886)
  • Artist Michelangelo Buonarroti was born (1475)
  • Acetylaslicylic acid, known as Aspirin, patented by Felix Hoffmann at German company Bayer (1899)
  • After a meeting in Indianapolis, USA, a group forms the Social Democratic Party, later becoming the Socialist Party (1900)
  • Silly Putty invented (1950)
  • Dmitri Mendeleev presents the first periodic table of the elements to the Russian Chemical Society (1869)
  • Stalin’s daughter Svetlana Allilujeva asks for political asylum in US (1967)
  • In Germany, the Edict of Restitution ordered that all church property secularized since 1552 be restored to the Roman Catholic Church (1629)
  • The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, alleged Soviet spies, begins (1951)
  • Illinois passes first state vaccination legislation in US (1810)
  • Magellan discovers Guam (1521)
  • Edgar Allen Poe removed from West Point military academy (1831)
  • Cassius Clay joins the Nation of Islam and is renamed Muhammad Ali (1964)

March 7:

  • Christians Perpetua and Felicitas were martyred by being thrown to wild beast as they joyfully praised God and encouraged other believers (202 AD)
  • Ohio Territory militiamen began a two-day massacre of the Moravian Indian town of Gnadenhutten killing 96 Christian Delaware Native Americans in retaliation for Indian raids made elsewhere (1782)
  • Alexander Graham Bell patents telephone (1876)
  • Alabama state troopers & 600 black protesters clash in Selma (1965)
  • Cincinnati Mayor Mark Breith stood before city council & announces that, “women are not physically fit to operate automobiles” (1908)
  • Roman Emperor Constantine I decrees that the dies Solis Invicti, sun-day, is the day of rest in the Empire (321 AD)
  • Colonial preacher Anne Hutchinson and nineteen other exiles from the Massachusetts Bay Colony settled in Rhode Island (1638)
  • Russian February Revolution breaks out [OS=Feb 24] with strike at Putilov factory in Petrograd (1917)
  • WW2: Hitler breaks Treaty of Versailles, sends troops to Rhineland (1936)
  • Captain James Cook first sights Oregon coast at Yaquina Bay (1778)
  • First jazz record record released on a 78 (1917)
  • King Henry VIII’s divorce request is denied by the Pope; Henry then declares that he, not the Pope, is supreme head of England’s church (1530)
  • US Navy issues first permanent order assigning women on combat ship (1994)
  • Birth of Peter Cameron Scott, founder of the Africa Inland Mission (1867)
  • In Washington, D.C., the first Baptist church was organized with six charter members (1802)
  • Game of Monopoly invented (1933)

March 8:

  • Great Awakening revivalist Gilbert Tennent preached a sermon, The Danger of An Unconverted Ministry, refuting church leaders who opposed the Great Awakening and starting the New Light movement of knowing God more intimately (1740)
  • When the Communist Polish government banned public crosses, three thousand students protested, waving crucifixes in the air (1984)
  • Gnadenhutten Massacre – Ohio militia kills 90 Indians (1782)
  • The first case of Spanish flu occurs, the start of a devastating worldwide pandemic (1918)
  • Susan B. Anthony addresses the U.S. House Judiciary Committee arguing for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution granting women the right to vote (1884)
  • Russian Revolution, also known as February Revolution, begans (1917)
  • First flight of the Goodyear blimp (1972)
  • US Supreme Court rules in McCollum v. Board of Education that religious instruction in public schools is unconstitutional (1948)
  • Edwin Hubble photo shows as many galaxies as Milky Way has stars (1934)
  • The first meeting of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1698)
  • New York Stock Exchange is founded (1817)
  • In The Spectator, English essayist Joseph Addison wrote: “To be an atheist requires an infinitely greater measure of faith than to receive all the great truths which atheism would deny.” (1711)
  • President Reagan first known use of term “Evil Empire” about the USSR in speech in Florida (1983)
  • Baroness Raymonde de Laroche of Paris becomes the 1st ever licensed female pilot (1910)
  • Malcolm X resigns from the Nation of Islam (1964)
  • Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 with 239 people loses contact and disappears, prompting the most expensive search effort in history (2014)

March 9:

  • 40 Roman soldiers refused to denounce Christ and marched naked into ice cold water to be martyred praying 40 would receive crowns of life. When one lost his nerve, a guard took his place and received Christ as his savior (320 AD)
  • WW1: Otterman Turks Interior Minister Talaat issued a directive to wipe out all Christian Armenians; one and a half million died in the next few months (1915)
  • WW2: 334 US B-29 Superfortresses attack Tokyo with 120,000 fire bombs in the single deadliest air raid of the war (1945)
  • Russian Bolshevik Party becomes the Communist Party (1918)
  • The first Barbie doll makes her debut at the American Toy Fair in New York City (1959)
  • WW2: Last Japanese soldier, a guerrilla operating in Philippines, surrenders, 29 years after World War II ended (1974)
  • First Ford Mustang produced (1964)
  • US Civil War: Ulysses S. Grant is appointed commander of Union Army (1894)
  • First female cadets accepted to West Point Military Academy (1976)
  • Phoebe Palmer Knapp, author of over 500 hymns, was born (1839)
  • The World Radio Missionary Fellowship was incorporated in Lima, Ohio which today broadcasts the Gospel in 15 languages to South America and Europe (1931)
  • Publication of the influential economics book The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith (1976)
  • Supreme Court issues NY Times vs Sullivan decision, public officials must prove malice to claim libel & recover damages (1964)
  • Marten Luther begins preaching his Invocavit Sermons in the German city of Wittenberg (1522)
  • Publication of the influential economics book “The Wealth of Nations” by Adam Smith (1776)
  • US Congress is called into special session by FDR, beginning its “100 days” (1933)

March 10:

  • Slave-ship Captain and author of Amazing Grace, John Newton, gave his life to Christ (1748)
  • First telephone call made, Alexander Graham Bell to Thomas Watson (1876)
  • US Senate approves amendment lowering voting age to 18 (1971)
  • Dante, author of Divine Comedy, was exiled out of Italy (1302)
  • Anabaptist leader Balthasar Hubmaier was martyred by being burned at the stake (1528)
  • Quaker William Penn received a charter from Charles II for the colonial American territory known today as the state of Pennsylvania (1681)
  • A group of Salvation Army members invaded New York City as “missionaries to America” (1880)
  • US Revolutionary War: USS Alliance under Captain Barry fights and wins last naval battle of US Revolutionary War off Cape Canaveral (1783)
  • Abraham Lincoln applies for a patent, only US president to do so, for a device to lift a boat over shoals and obstructions (1849)

March 11:

  • US army Corps of Engineers established (1779)
  • US Civil War: Confederate convention in Montgomery adopts constitution (1861)
  • Benjamin Banneker and Pierre Charles L’Enfant begin to lay out Washington, D.C. (1789)
  • Menachem Begin & Anwar Sadat sign peace treaty in Washington, D.C. (1982)
  • Muslims hold 130 hostages in Washington DC (1977)
  • WW2: First deportation train leaves Paris for Auschwitz Concentration Camp (1942)
  • Great blizzard of ’88 strikes northeastern US (1888)
  • 9.0 magnitude earthquake strikes 130 km east of Sendai, Japan, triggering a tsunami killing thousands of people and causing the second worst nuclear accident in history (2011)
  • US War Dept creates the Bureau of Indian Affair (1824)
  • WW2: Hermann Goering officially creates German Air Force, the Luftwaffe (1935)
  • New York’s English Deputies approved a new legal code, which guaranteed all Protestants the right to practice their religious observances unhindered (1665)
  • US Civil War: Lincoln removes George McClellen as general-in-chief (1862)
  • Woman’s Medical College of Penn becomes first female medical school (1850)
  • A meteorite enters the earth’s atmosphere and explodes over New Martinsville, West Virginia (1897)
  • Ashes of Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry are launched into space (1997)
  • Moscow becomes capital of revolutionary Russia (1918)
  • Felix Mendelssohn arranged to have Bach’s St. Matthew Passion played March 11, almost exactly a century from the date of its first, long-forgotten performance (1829)
  • Goths lay siege to Rome (537 AD)

March 12:

  • After years in exile, Jews finish rebuilding the temple of God (515 BC)
  • First record of Johann Gutenberg’s Bible, letter dated this day by Enea Silvio Piccolomini refers to the bible printed a year before (1455)
  • WW2: Nazi Germany invades Austria (1938)
  • US lowers voting age from 21 to 18 (1970)
  • US House joins Senate approving Hawaii statehood (1959)
  • New Jersey becomes an English colony (1664)
  • Girl Guides, now known as Girl Scouts, forms in Savannah, by Juliette Gordon Low (1912)
  • Coca-Cola is sold in bottles for the first time in Vicksburg, Mississippi (1894)
  • FDR conducts his first “fireside chat” (1933)
  • President Harry Truman introduces Truman-doctrine to fight communism (1947)
  • Congress accepts Pre-emption Bill: free land in West for colonists (1860)

This Week in History 2/27 – 3/5

HistoryFebruary 27:

  • Birth of Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor to be converted to the Christian faith (280 AD)
  • Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency (1860)
  • US Supreme Court unanimously upheld 19th amendment to the US Constitution – women’s right to vote (1922)
  • 22nd amendment ratified limiting US Presidents to 2 terms (1951)
  • Britain’s House of Lords agrees to end 1,000 years of male precedence by giving a monarch’s first-born daughter the same claim to the throne as any first born son (1998)
  • Gulf War: War ends after Iraqi troops retreat and Kuwait is re-taken by the US (1991)
  • Mao’s famous speech to the Supreme State Conference “On Correct Handling of Contradictions Among People” expounding Maoist ideals (1957)
  • Washington, D.C. placed under Congressional jurisdiction (1801)
  • Chaim Weizmann becomes first President of Israel (1949)
  • First Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans (1827)
  • American Indian Movement occupy Wounded Knee in South Dakota (1973)
  • US Republican Governor Jan Brewer vetoes a religious freedom bill that would have allowed businesses to turn away gay customers (2014)
  • US Supreme Court outlaws sit-down strikes (1939)
  • Psychiatrists Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud meet for the first time in Vienna (1907)
  • Wikileaks begins disclosing 5 million emails from private intelligence company Stratfor (2012)
  • Fred Rogers died (2013)
  • Leonard Nimoy died (2015)

February 28:

  • James D. Watson and Frances H.C. Crick announce that they have determined the double-helix structure of DNA, the molecule containing human genes (1953)
  • WWI: After the French try to drive the Germans forces back into the Champagne region, they gain a few hundred yards – at the cost of 50,000 casualties (1915)
  • Arkansas legislature requires free blacks to choose exile or slavery (1859)
  • WW2: Hiding Place author Corrie Ten Boom, who was suffering from the flu, and her sister Betsy were arrested by the Gestapo for hiding Jews (1944)
  • Preacher David Wilkerson, after hearing a Word from God, tried to speak at a gang member’s trial in New York City and was slapped in handcuffs and escorted out giving him an audience with the youth he would later help (1958)
  • John Wesley formally chartered Wesleyan Methodism (1784)
  • Ann Lee, the founder of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, a Christian sect commonly known as the Shakers, is born in Manchester, England (1736)
  • The Scottish Covenant separating the church from the rule of the king was read in churches throughout Scotland which led to Civil War (1638)
  • Gulf War: United Nations troops move into Kuwait City and Saddam Hussein orders troops out of Kuwait; Iraqi soldiers ignite Kuwaiti oil fields during their retreat (1991)
  • In Taiwan, during 228 incident, civil disorder is put down with the loss of 30,000 civilian lives (1947)
  • In “Exodus of 1879” southern blacks flee political/economic exploitation (1879)
  • Territories of Nevada & Colorado created (1861)
  • JFK names Henry Kissinger special advisor (1961)
  • President Richard Nixon ends historic week-long visit to China as the first president to visit there (1972)
  • Republican Party formally organized at Ripon, Wisconsin (1854)
  • Final TV episode of M*A*S*H airs on CBS with a record 125 million watching in the US (1983)
  • Smokers must prove they are over 18 to purchase cigarettes in US (1997)
  • The brains of two rats successfully connected so that they share information (2013)
  • Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church (1646)
  • Indians attack Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 40 and kidnapping 100 (1704)
  • Gun battle erupts near Waco, Texas at Branch Davidian compound after FBI attempts a raid (1993)
  • The erroneous word “Dord” is discovered in the Webster’s New International Dictionary, Second Edition, prompting an investigation (1939)

February 29:

  • Tituba, the female Indian servant of the Reverend Samuel Parris, and Sarah Goode were both arrested and accused of witchcraft in Salem Massachusetts (1692)
  • President Theodore Roosevelt, appoints 7-man Panama Canal Commission to proceed with completing a canal at the Isthmus (1904)
  • Death of Pope Hilary, 46th Bishop of Rome, who during his seven-year pontificate, he reaffirmed the earlier church councils where the major creeds of the Early Church were hammered out (468 AD)
  • Hattie McDaniel becomes first black woman to win an Oscar for Gone with the Wind (1940)
  • Martyrdom of Scottish reformer Patrick Hamilton (1528)
  • Jay’s Treaty proclaimed, settles some differences with England (1796)
  • Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to frighten hostile Jamaican Indians (1504)

March 1:

  • Hudson Taylor, founder of China Inland Mission, arrived in Shanghai, China (1854)
  • Continental Congress adopts Articles of Confederation (1781)
  • Congress passes Civil Rights Act; invalidated by Supreme Court 1883 (1875)
  • First US census authorized (1790)
  • Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity (1896)
  • 118 die when three passenger trains buried at Steven’s Pass in Cascade Range by the worst snow slide in US history (1910)
  • U.S. Army Captain Albert Berry performs first attached-type parachute jump from an airplane (1912)
  • Scottish reformation preacher George Wishart, who  preached in in churches and when those doors were closed fields calling all men to repentance, was martyred by being burned at the stake in England (1546)
  • 20 month old Charles Lindbergh Jr, kidnapped; found dead May 12 (1932)
  • Fidelia Fiske sailed for Persia becoming the first single woman missionary there (1843)
  • The Salem Witch Trials in the Massachusetts colony officially began with the conviction of Reverend Samuel Parris’ West Indian slave, Tituba, for witchcraft (1692)
  • Isabella Goodwin, first US woman detective, appointed in NYC (1912)
  • The first issue of The Evening Light and Church of God Evangel was published in Cleveland, Tennessee (1910)
  • US federal income tax takes effect (1913)
  • Watergate grand jury indicts 7 presidential aides (1974)
  • President Kennedy establishes the Peace Corp (1961)
  • Pennsylvania becomes first US state to abolish slavery – for newborns only (1780)
  • Ohio becomes 17th state (1803)
  • President Tyler signs a resolution annexing the Republic of Texas (1845)
  • Most of Nebraska becomes 37th US state, expanded later (1867)
  • Yellowstone becomes world’s first national park (1872)
  • WW1: Germany begins attacking ships in the Atlantic (1916)
  • The Hoover Dam is completed (1936)
  • Michigan becomes 1st English-speaking jurisdiction to abolish the death penalty, except for treason against the state (1847)
  • End of US commercial whale hunting (1970)
  • Captain America first appears in comic book form (1941)
  • Management of the United States Customs Service and the United States Secret Service move to the United States Department of Homeland Security (2003)
  • Puritan English parliamentary leader Sir Peter Wentworth confined in London Tower (1587)
  • Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses, dies 4 days later (1953)
  • Georgeana, Maine became the first incorporated American city (1642)
  • Country singer June Carter Cash weds Johnny Cash (1868)

March 2:

  • The Sound of Music starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer is released (1965)
  • US Revolutionary War: Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston (1776)
  • Congress bans slave trade (1807)
  • U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins (2002)
  • Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, is born (1904)
  • Congress standardizes US weights & measures (1799)
  • First Evangelical church building dedicated in New Berlin, Pennsylvania (1817)
  • Republic of Texas declares independence from Mexico (1836)
  • US Civil War: First Reconstruction act passed by US Congress (1867)
  • Evangelist John Wesley dies (1791)
  • English King Charles I dissolves Parliament against opposition, imprisoning 9 members of parliament (1629)
  • Louis V becomes King of the Franks (986 AD)
  • Pennsylvania ends prohibition of theatrical performances (1789)
  • Freedman’s Bureau founded for Black Education (1865)
  • Territory of Arkansas organized (1819)
  • Territory of Washington organized after separating from Oregon Territory (1853)
  • US creates Dakota & Nevada Territories out of the Nebraska & Utah territories (1861)
  • US passed its first immigration law (1819)
  • Interstate commerce comes under federal control (1824)
  • First US company to make sewing needles by machine incorporated (1866)
  • US Congress creates the Department of Education (1867)
  • The Convention of Constantinople is signed, guaranteeing free maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace (1888)
  • Long-distance communication speeds up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris (1791)

March 3:

  • Star Spangled Banner officially becomes US national anthem by congressional resolution (1931)
  • Congress establishes US Mint (1791)
  • Richard Allen founded African Methodist Episcopal Church (1794)
  • First US probe to enter solar orbit, Pioneer 4, launched (1959)
  • Missouri Compromise passes, allowing Missouri to join the United States despite slavery still being legal there (1820)
  • The U.S. Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, or lascivious” books through the mail (1873)
  • Anne Sullivan begins teaching 6 year old blind-deaf Helen Keller (1887)
  • American Telephone & Telegraph, AT&T, incorporates (1885)
  • WW1: Facing pressure from internal counterrevolutionary forces and an external German offensive, the Bolsheviks are forced to signs the harsh Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and Austria (1900)
  • US Congress passes Indian Appropriations Act (1885)
  • US Congress creates Courts of Appeal (1891)
  • US Congress creates Office of Superintendent of Immigration, Treasury Department (1891)
  • Congress increases US Supreme Court membership from 7 to 9 (1837)
  • US President Andrew Jackson & Congress recognizes Republic of Texas (1837)
  • Mount Rushmore dedicated (1933)
  • US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established by Abraham Lincoln to help destitute free blacks (1865)
  • WW2: In the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, Australian and American air forces devastate Japanese navy convoy (1943)
  • War of 1812: Office of Surgeon General of the US Army forms (1813)
  • Florida becomes 27th state of the Union (1845)
  • US Home Department (later renamed the Department of the Interior) established by Congress (1849)
  • US Steel Corporation organizes (1900)
  • First female lawyer heard by US Supreme Court, Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood (1879)
  • First US child labor law regulating working hours passed (1842)
  • Louisiana-Missouri Territory forms (1805)
  • Territory of Minnesota organizes (1829)
  • Idaho Territory forms (1863)
  • Mississippi Territory is divided into Alabama Territory & Mississippi (1817)
  • First US internal revenue act, taxing distilled spirits & carriages (1791)
  • Rockefeller Foundation: John D. Rockefeller Jr. announces his retirement from managing his businesses so that he can be devoted full time to being a philanthropist (1910)
  • Origin of Saka Era now known as India (78 AD)
  • Mohandas Gandhi begins to fast in protest against autocratic rule in India (1939)
  • NYC premiere of King Kong starring Fay Wray (1933)

March 4:

  • Beatles John Lennon is quoted, “Christianity will… vanish and shrink… We’re more popular than Jesus Christ right now” becoming one of many to announce the premature “death” of Christianity (1966)
  • President Zachary Taylor refused to take the presidential oath of office on a Sunday leading the United States “without” a president for a day (1849)
  • American missionary Gustav Schmidt, opened the Danzig Instytut Biblijny in Danzig, Poland, the first Pentecostal Bible institute established in Eastern Europe (1930)
  • First US Congress meets and declares constitution in effect with 9 senators, 13 representatives (1789)
  • First sighting of Orion nebula by William Herschel (1774)
  • England’s King Charles I grants a royal charter to Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628)
  • Vermont admitted as 14th state, first addition to the 13 colonies (1791)
  • Quaker William Penn receives charter from Charles II, making him sole proprietor of colonial American territory Pennsylvania (1681)
  • US Civil War: Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as 16th US President (1861)
  • Martyrdom of Saint Adrian of Nicomedia who was head of the Roman head of the praetorium guard and became a Christian after torturing Christians and asking them why they died with such courage (303 AD)
  • First recorded case of Spanish flu at Funston Army Camp, Kanas; start of worldwide pandemic killing 50-100 million (1918)
  • American Automobile Association, AAA, founded in Chicago (1902)
  • Great fire in Shanghai; over 1,000 buildings destroyed (1894)
  • Civil War: Confederate States adopt “Stars & Bars” flag (1861)
  • Nero, later to become Roman Emperor and great persecutor of Christians including the one who killed Peter, Paul, and other apostles, is given the title princeps iuventutis, head of the youth (51 AD)
  • Chicago becomes incorporated as a city (1837)
  • US Revolutionary War: The Americans capture Dorchester Heights dominating the port of Boston, Massachusetts (1776)
  • First Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs, takes office (1791)
  • Thomas Jefferson becomes the first president inaugurated in Washington DC (1801)
  • FDR inaugrated as 32nd president, pledges to pull US out of Depression & says “We have nothing to fear but fear itself” (1933)
  • WW2: Princess Elizabeth, later Queen Elizabeth II, joins the British Auxiliary Transport Service as a driver (1945)
  • Over 1,100 Christian organizations combined to form the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability ECFA (1979)
  • First flight of the airship Hindenburg at Friedrichshafen, Germany (1936)
  • President James A. Garfield was baptized at age 18 (1850)
  • Territory of Idaho established (1863)
  • Birth of Gloria Gaither (1942)
  • Oranges introduced to Hawaii (1792)
  • Happy Birthday To You published by Claydon Sunny (1924)
  • Lucille Ball files divorce from Desi Arnaz (1960)

March 5:

  • US Revolutionary War: Boston Massacre when British soldiers kill 5 men in a crowd throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks at them (1770)
  • Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech in the US popularizes the term and draws attention to the rise of Communism in Europe (1946)
  • Hula Hoop is patented (1963)
  • US Revolutionary War: John Hancock delivers the fourth annual Massacre Day oration, a commemoration of the Boston Massacre, and denounces the presence of British troops in Boston (1776)
  • Abolitionists establish “Crispus Attucks Day” in Boston in honor of the first man to die in the Boston Massacre who was an African American (1858)
  • Nikola Tesla, in Electrical World and Engineer, describes the process of the ball lightning formation (1904)
  • WW2: Germany’s Nazi Party wins majority in parliament  (1933)
  • Samuel Colt manufactures first pistol, 34-caliber “Texas” model (1836)
  • Smoking tobacco introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes (1558)
  • In Boston, editor Thomas Prince published the first issue of The Christian History, the first religious journal published in America (1743)
  • Missionary Henry Nott arrived in Tahiti and spent 22 years preaching before seeing his first convert, the violent king Pomare II (1797)
  • George Müller and Henry Craik formed The Scripture Knowledge Institution, for Home and Abroad without any money and a resolve not to ask for donations or accept money from the unsaved (1834)
  • Graves of Tsar Nicholas II and entire family found in St Petersburg (1995)
  • Joseph Stalin dies (1953)
  • English King Henry VII hands John Cabot a commission to explore for new lands (1496)
  • Mother-in-law’s day first celebrated (1934)
  • First American temperance law enacted in Virginia (1623)
  • Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90,000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a campaign which would bring about his own death (363 AD)

This Week in History 2/20 – 2/26

Historyby Tamera Lynn Kraft

This Week in History

February 20:

  • John Glenn is first American to orbit Earth (1962)
  • Kepler-37b, the smallest known exoplanet, is discovered (2013)
  • US Postal Service Act creating US Postal Service is signed by President George Washington (1792)
  • Death of Kathryn Kuhlman (1946)
  • WW2: American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies (1943)
  • Hydraulic electric elevator patented by Cyrus Baldwin (1872)
  • Luther Crowell patents a machine that manufactures paper bags (1872)
  • Silas Noble & JP Cooley patents toothpick manufacturing machine (1872)
  • First territorial legislature of Hawaii convenes (1901)
  • State of Prussia ceases to exist (1947)
  • WW2: Nazis order Polish Jews barred from using public transportation (1901)
  • WW2: Batman & Robin comic strip premieres in newspapers (1944)
  • Tennessee Governor W C Brownlow declares martial law in Ku Klux Klan crisis (1869)
  • Rutherford, author Apology of Divine Grace which refuted salvation based on works, was exiled from England (1636)
  • New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art opens (1872)

February 21:

  • Francis Crick and James Watson discover structure of DNA-molecule (1953)
  • US Congress passes Presidential Succession Act (1792)
  • US Congress resolves establishment of a US mint (1782)
  • Washington Monument dedicated (1885)
  • First known sewing machine patented in US (1842)
  • Freedom of worship was established in France under the constitution that came out of the French Revolution (1795)
  • Eric Liddell, Olympic champion runner from the film Chariots of Fire who later became missionary to China and was captured by the Japanese during WWII, died of a brain tumor while still imprisoned (1945)
  • Joan of Arc’s first day of interrogation during her trial for heresy (1430)
  • The Prussian Confederation is formed (1440)
  • NC Legislature, adjourns for day to mark death of Frederick Douglass (1895)
  • Rights activist Malcolm X is shot dead by Nation of Islam followers at Audubon Ballroom in New York City (1965)
  • Watergate figures John Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman & John D Ehrlichman sentenced to prison terms for conspiracy and obstruction of justice (1975)
  • Richard Nixon becomes 1st US president to visit China (1972)
  • Oregon becomes first US state to make Labor Day a holiday (1887)
  • Alka Seltzer introduced (1931)
  • First American Indian newspaper in US, Cherokee Phoenix, published (1828)
  • World’s Fair in San Francisco opens (1915)
  • Walter Taylor, missionary to railroad men and miners in Colorado and at the Old Brewery Mission in Montreal, gave his life to Christ after his Christian wife died (1896)
  • British poet Robert Southwell was hanged and quartered for treason for being a Catholic (1595)
  • Ranavalona II, ruler of Madagascar, and her court converted to Christianity ending decades of persecution (1869)
  • Jackson 5 make TV debut on American Bandstand (1970)
  • Camera exposure meter patented (1932)
  • Jimmy Swaggert admitted to visiting a prostitute and announced he would be leaving his ministry for an unspecified length of time (1988)

February 22:

  • Black evangelist William J. Seymour first arrived in Los Angeles and began holding revival meetings which, latter that year, broke out into the Azuza Street Revival (1906)
  • Dolly the Sheep, world’s first cloned mammal, is announced by the Roslin Institute in Scotland (1997)
  • Indians introduce pilgrims to popcorn (1930)
  • Russia & Britain establish Alaska-Canada boundary (1825)
  • Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery (1865)
  • President Cleveland signs bill to admit Dakotas, Montana, and Washington as US states (1889)
  • WW2: President Franklin Roosevelt orders General Douglas MacArthur out of the Philippines as American defenses collapse (1942)
  • WW2: Members of White Rose, a nonviolent resistance group, are executed in Nazi Germany (1943)
  • Hawaii becomes US territory (1900)
  • Due to drought the US side of Niagara Falls runs short of water (1903)
  • Johns Hopkins University opens (1876)
  • First national meeting of Republican Party (1856)
  • Airplanes are no longer permitted to fly over the White House (1935)
  • Vietnam War: 25,000 US & South Vietnamese troops launch Operation Junction City against Viet Cong. Largest US airborne assult since WWII (1967)
  • First national convention of Prohibition Party in Columbus Ohio (1872)
  • It Happened One Night starring Clark Gable premieres in New York City (1935)

February 23:

  • Polycarp, the last church leader personally taught by the apostles whose mentor was John the Apostle, was burned at the stake (155 AD)
  • Johannes Gutenberg prints his first book, Bible (1455)
  • The Great Persecution by Roman Emperor Diocletian begins when Christians were dragged off and tortured them to death, employing the rack, the scourge, slow fires, crucifixion, and many other barbarities (303 AD)
  • First mass inoculation against polio with Salk vaccine (1954)
  • Plutonium was first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg (1941)
  • Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders (1998)
  • WW2: US Marines raise flag on Iwo Jima depicted by a famous photo and later a statue in the Marine Corps War Memorial (1945)
  • 13 day siege of the Alamo begins (1836)
  • US Civil War: Mississippi is readmitted to US (1870)
  • Boston, Massachusetts, is incorporated as a city (1822)
  • Walt Disney’s animated movie Pinocchio released (1940)
  • WW1: First victory of Red Army over the Kaiser’s German troops near Narva and Pskov (1918)
  • Vietnam War: US troops begin largest offensive of Vietnam War (1967)
  • Wilt Chamberlain becomes first NBAer to score 25,000 points (1968)
  • Gulf War: US insists Iraq publicly announce it is leaving Kuwait by 12 PM EST (1991)
  • Nevada enforces convenient divorce law (1915)
  • Tootsie Roll introduced by Leo Hirshfield (1896)
  • WW2: Fascist Party forms in Italy by Benito Mussolini (1919)
  • President Calvin Coolidge creates Federal Radio Commission (1927)
  • Dow Jones closes above 4,000 for first time (1995)

February 24:

  • Pope Gregory XIII issued a bull that Catholic nations accept the Gregorian Calendar and that October 4th be followed by October 15th that year to make the calendar in sync with the rotation of the Earth (1582)
  • First official Roman edict for persecution of Christians issued by Emperor Diocletian officially beginning the Great Persecution (303 AD)
  • US House of Representatives vote 126 to 47 to impeach President Andrew Johnson (1868)
  • US Supreme Court 1st rules a law unconstitutional – Marbury v Madison (1803)
  • Arizona Territory created (1863)
  • WW1: German plan to get Mexican help in the war is exposed when the Zimmerman Telegram is intercepted (1917)
  • Britain’s Prince Charles announces engagement to Lady Diana Spencer (1981)
  • Israel & Egypt sign an armistice agreement (1949)
  • Communist Party seizes complete control of Czechoslovakia (1948)
  • Antibaptists voted to accept a confession of faith now known as the Schleitheim Confession (1527)
  • St Francis of Assisi, 26, received his vocation in Portiuncula Italy (1208)
  • King Ethelbert of Kent in England, who was converted to Christianity by St. Augustine, died (616 AD)
  • Mahatma Gandhi released from jail (1924)
  • South Africa announces it is constructing largest modern day blimp (1997)
  • Mass arrests of the mafia in the US (1923)
  • WW2: The “Battle of Los Angeles” takes place (1942)

February 25:

  • First cabinet meeting takes place at George Washington’s home in Mount Vernon (1793)
  • Hiram R. Revels, Republican senator from Mississippi, is sworn in as the first African American member of Congress (1870)
  • Samuel Colt patents 1st revolving barrel multi-shot firearm (1836)
  • The 16th Amendment to the US Constitution becomes law providing the legal basis for the institution of a graduated income tax (1913)
  • League of Nations set up by Paris Treaty (1919)
  • US Civil War: Paper currency, greenbacks, introduced in US by Pres Abraham Lincoln (1862)
  • US Congress passes first federal quarantine legislation (1799)
  • First Bank of US chartered (1791)
  • Elizabeth I of England was excommunicated by Pope Pius V for her severe persecution of Roman Catholics in England, the last such judgment made against a reigning monarch by any pope (1570)
  • First use of “insanity plea” to prove innocence (1859)
  • WW2: Immigrant Adolf Hitler gets German citizenship (1932)
  • Bread in Berlin rises to 2,000 marks (1923)
  • The Baptist General Tract Society was organized (1824)
  • Pioneer missionary Eduard L. Arndt first arrived in Shanghai, China, 10 months after having founded the Evangelical Lutheran Missions for China (1913)
  • First performing monkey exhibited in America (1751)

February 26:

  • 15th Amendment guaranteeing right to vote, regardless of race, color, or former servitude, sent to states to ratify (1969)
  • WW2: German Luftwaffe is re-formed under Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering (1935)
  • WW2: First female US navy captain, Sue Dauser of nurse corps, appointed (1945)
  • Spanish Inquisition delivers injunction to Galileo (1616)
  • Marx & Engels publish Communist Manifesto (1848)
  • Second tallest building in world, NYC World Trade Center, bombed (1993)
  • Last total eclipse of Sun in 20th century for continental US (1979)
  • Congress forms Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona (1919)
  • Grand Tetons National Park established (1929)
  • Golden Gate Bridge ground-breaking ceremony held at Crissy Field (1933)
  • Acadia National Park forms in Maine (1919)
  • WW2: Trial against Hitler in Munich begins (1924)
  • First red & green traffic lights installed in Manhattan (1930)
  • WW2: Italian nationalist & fascists merge, blue-shirts & black-shirts (1919)
  • Napoleon Bonaparte & his supporters leave Elba to start a 100-day re-conquest of France (1815)
  • Gandhi supports the African People’s Organizations resolution to declare the day of arrival of the Prince of Wales in South Africa as a day of mourning in protest against the South Africa Acts disenfranchisement of Indians, Coloreds and Africans in the upcoming Union of South Africa (1910)