This Week in History 2/27 – 3/5

HistoryFebruary 27:

  • Birth of Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor to be converted to the Christian faith (280 AD)
  • Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency (1860)
  • US Supreme Court unanimously upheld 19th amendment to the US Constitution – women’s right to vote (1922)
  • 22nd amendment ratified limiting US Presidents to 2 terms (1951)
  • Britain’s House of Lords agrees to end 1,000 years of male precedence by giving a monarch’s first-born daughter the same claim to the throne as any first born son (1998)
  • Gulf War: War ends after Iraqi troops retreat and Kuwait is re-taken by the US (1991)
  • Mao’s famous speech to the Supreme State Conference “On Correct Handling of Contradictions Among People” expounding Maoist ideals (1957)
  • Washington, D.C. placed under Congressional jurisdiction (1801)
  • Chaim Weizmann becomes first President of Israel (1949)
  • First Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans (1827)
  • American Indian Movement occupy Wounded Knee in South Dakota (1973)
  • US Republican Governor Jan Brewer vetoes a religious freedom bill that would have allowed businesses to turn away gay customers (2014)
  • US Supreme Court outlaws sit-down strikes (1939)
  • Psychiatrists Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud meet for the first time in Vienna (1907)
  • Wikileaks begins disclosing 5 million emails from private intelligence company Stratfor (2012)
  • Fred Rogers died (2013)
  • Leonard Nimoy died (2015)

February 28:

  • James D. Watson and Frances H.C. Crick announce that they have determined the double-helix structure of DNA, the molecule containing human genes (1953)
  • WWI: After the French try to drive the Germans forces back into the Champagne region, they gain a few hundred yards – at the cost of 50,000 casualties (1915)
  • Arkansas legislature requires free blacks to choose exile or slavery (1859)
  • WW2: Hiding Place author Corrie Ten Boom, who was suffering from the flu, and her sister Betsy were arrested by the Gestapo for hiding Jews (1944)
  • Preacher David Wilkerson, after hearing a Word from God, tried to speak at a gang member’s trial in New York City and was slapped in handcuffs and escorted out giving him an audience with the youth he would later help (1958)
  • John Wesley formally chartered Wesleyan Methodism (1784)
  • Ann Lee, the founder of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, a Christian sect commonly known as the Shakers, is born in Manchester, England (1736)
  • The Scottish Covenant separating the church from the rule of the king was read in churches throughout Scotland which led to Civil War (1638)
  • Gulf War: United Nations troops move into Kuwait City and Saddam Hussein orders troops out of Kuwait; Iraqi soldiers ignite Kuwaiti oil fields during their retreat (1991)
  • In Taiwan, during 228 incident, civil disorder is put down with the loss of 30,000 civilian lives (1947)
  • In “Exodus of 1879” southern blacks flee political/economic exploitation (1879)
  • Territories of Nevada & Colorado created (1861)
  • JFK names Henry Kissinger special advisor (1961)
  • President Richard Nixon ends historic week-long visit to China as the first president to visit there (1972)
  • Republican Party formally organized at Ripon, Wisconsin (1854)
  • Final TV episode of M*A*S*H airs on CBS with a record 125 million watching in the US (1983)
  • Smokers must prove they are over 18 to purchase cigarettes in US (1997)
  • The brains of two rats successfully connected so that they share information (2013)
  • Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church (1646)
  • Indians attack Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 40 and kidnapping 100 (1704)
  • Gun battle erupts near Waco, Texas at Branch Davidian compound after FBI attempts a raid (1993)
  • The erroneous word “Dord” is discovered in the Webster’s New International Dictionary, Second Edition, prompting an investigation (1939)

February 29:

  • Tituba, the female Indian servant of the Reverend Samuel Parris, and Sarah Goode were both arrested and accused of witchcraft in Salem Massachusetts (1692)
  • President Theodore Roosevelt, appoints 7-man Panama Canal Commission to proceed with completing a canal at the Isthmus (1904)
  • Death of Pope Hilary, 46th Bishop of Rome, who during his seven-year pontificate, he reaffirmed the earlier church councils where the major creeds of the Early Church were hammered out (468 AD)
  • Hattie McDaniel becomes first black woman to win an Oscar for Gone with the Wind (1940)
  • Martyrdom of Scottish reformer Patrick Hamilton (1528)
  • Jay’s Treaty proclaimed, settles some differences with England (1796)
  • Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to frighten hostile Jamaican Indians (1504)

March 1:

  • Hudson Taylor, founder of China Inland Mission, arrived in Shanghai, China (1854)
  • Continental Congress adopts Articles of Confederation (1781)
  • Congress passes Civil Rights Act; invalidated by Supreme Court 1883 (1875)
  • First US census authorized (1790)
  • Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity (1896)
  • 118 die when three passenger trains buried at Steven’s Pass in Cascade Range by the worst snow slide in US history (1910)
  • U.S. Army Captain Albert Berry performs first attached-type parachute jump from an airplane (1912)
  • Scottish reformation preacher George Wishart, who  preached in in churches and when those doors were closed fields calling all men to repentance, was martyred by being burned at the stake in England (1546)
  • 20 month old Charles Lindbergh Jr, kidnapped; found dead May 12 (1932)
  • Fidelia Fiske sailed for Persia becoming the first single woman missionary there (1843)
  • The Salem Witch Trials in the Massachusetts colony officially began with the conviction of Reverend Samuel Parris’ West Indian slave, Tituba, for witchcraft (1692)
  • Isabella Goodwin, first US woman detective, appointed in NYC (1912)
  • The first issue of The Evening Light and Church of God Evangel was published in Cleveland, Tennessee (1910)
  • US federal income tax takes effect (1913)
  • Watergate grand jury indicts 7 presidential aides (1974)
  • President Kennedy establishes the Peace Corp (1961)
  • Pennsylvania becomes first US state to abolish slavery – for newborns only (1780)
  • Ohio becomes 17th state (1803)
  • President Tyler signs a resolution annexing the Republic of Texas (1845)
  • Most of Nebraska becomes 37th US state, expanded later (1867)
  • Yellowstone becomes world’s first national park (1872)
  • WW1: Germany begins attacking ships in the Atlantic (1916)
  • The Hoover Dam is completed (1936)
  • Michigan becomes 1st English-speaking jurisdiction to abolish the death penalty, except for treason against the state (1847)
  • End of US commercial whale hunting (1970)
  • Captain America first appears in comic book form (1941)
  • Management of the United States Customs Service and the United States Secret Service move to the United States Department of Homeland Security (2003)
  • Puritan English parliamentary leader Sir Peter Wentworth confined in London Tower (1587)
  • Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses, dies 4 days later (1953)
  • Georgeana, Maine became the first incorporated American city (1642)
  • Country singer June Carter Cash weds Johnny Cash (1868)

March 2:

  • The Sound of Music starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer is released (1965)
  • US Revolutionary War: Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston (1776)
  • Congress bans slave trade (1807)
  • U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins (2002)
  • Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, is born (1904)
  • Congress standardizes US weights & measures (1799)
  • First Evangelical church building dedicated in New Berlin, Pennsylvania (1817)
  • Republic of Texas declares independence from Mexico (1836)
  • US Civil War: First Reconstruction act passed by US Congress (1867)
  • Evangelist John Wesley dies (1791)
  • English King Charles I dissolves Parliament against opposition, imprisoning 9 members of parliament (1629)
  • Louis V becomes King of the Franks (986 AD)
  • Pennsylvania ends prohibition of theatrical performances (1789)
  • Freedman’s Bureau founded for Black Education (1865)
  • Territory of Arkansas organized (1819)
  • Territory of Washington organized after separating from Oregon Territory (1853)
  • US creates Dakota & Nevada Territories out of the Nebraska & Utah territories (1861)
  • US passed its first immigration law (1819)
  • Interstate commerce comes under federal control (1824)
  • First US company to make sewing needles by machine incorporated (1866)
  • US Congress creates the Department of Education (1867)
  • The Convention of Constantinople is signed, guaranteeing free maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace (1888)
  • Long-distance communication speeds up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris (1791)

March 3:

  • Star Spangled Banner officially becomes US national anthem by congressional resolution (1931)
  • Congress establishes US Mint (1791)
  • Richard Allen founded African Methodist Episcopal Church (1794)
  • First US probe to enter solar orbit, Pioneer 4, launched (1959)
  • Missouri Compromise passes, allowing Missouri to join the United States despite slavery still being legal there (1820)
  • The U.S. Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, or lascivious” books through the mail (1873)
  • Anne Sullivan begins teaching 6 year old blind-deaf Helen Keller (1887)
  • American Telephone & Telegraph, AT&T, incorporates (1885)
  • WW1: Facing pressure from internal counterrevolutionary forces and an external German offensive, the Bolsheviks are forced to signs the harsh Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and Austria (1900)
  • US Congress passes Indian Appropriations Act (1885)
  • US Congress creates Courts of Appeal (1891)
  • US Congress creates Office of Superintendent of Immigration, Treasury Department (1891)
  • Congress increases US Supreme Court membership from 7 to 9 (1837)
  • US President Andrew Jackson & Congress recognizes Republic of Texas (1837)
  • Mount Rushmore dedicated (1933)
  • US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established by Abraham Lincoln to help destitute free blacks (1865)
  • WW2: In the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, Australian and American air forces devastate Japanese navy convoy (1943)
  • War of 1812: Office of Surgeon General of the US Army forms (1813)
  • Florida becomes 27th state of the Union (1845)
  • US Home Department (later renamed the Department of the Interior) established by Congress (1849)
  • US Steel Corporation organizes (1900)
  • First female lawyer heard by US Supreme Court, Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood (1879)
  • First US child labor law regulating working hours passed (1842)
  • Louisiana-Missouri Territory forms (1805)
  • Territory of Minnesota organizes (1829)
  • Idaho Territory forms (1863)
  • Mississippi Territory is divided into Alabama Territory & Mississippi (1817)
  • First US internal revenue act, taxing distilled spirits & carriages (1791)
  • Rockefeller Foundation: John D. Rockefeller Jr. announces his retirement from managing his businesses so that he can be devoted full time to being a philanthropist (1910)
  • Origin of Saka Era now known as India (78 AD)
  • Mohandas Gandhi begins to fast in protest against autocratic rule in India (1939)
  • NYC premiere of King Kong starring Fay Wray (1933)

March 4:

  • Beatles John Lennon is quoted, “Christianity will… vanish and shrink… We’re more popular than Jesus Christ right now” becoming one of many to announce the premature “death” of Christianity (1966)
  • President Zachary Taylor refused to take the presidential oath of office on a Sunday leading the United States “without” a president for a day (1849)
  • American missionary Gustav Schmidt, opened the Danzig Instytut Biblijny in Danzig, Poland, the first Pentecostal Bible institute established in Eastern Europe (1930)
  • First US Congress meets and declares constitution in effect with 9 senators, 13 representatives (1789)
  • First sighting of Orion nebula by William Herschel (1774)
  • England’s King Charles I grants a royal charter to Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628)
  • Vermont admitted as 14th state, first addition to the 13 colonies (1791)
  • Quaker William Penn receives charter from Charles II, making him sole proprietor of colonial American territory Pennsylvania (1681)
  • US Civil War: Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as 16th US President (1861)
  • Martyrdom of Saint Adrian of Nicomedia who was head of the Roman head of the praetorium guard and became a Christian after torturing Christians and asking them why they died with such courage (303 AD)
  • First recorded case of Spanish flu at Funston Army Camp, Kanas; start of worldwide pandemic killing 50-100 million (1918)
  • American Automobile Association, AAA, founded in Chicago (1902)
  • Great fire in Shanghai; over 1,000 buildings destroyed (1894)
  • Civil War: Confederate States adopt “Stars & Bars” flag (1861)
  • Nero, later to become Roman Emperor and great persecutor of Christians including the one who killed Peter, Paul, and other apostles, is given the title princeps iuventutis, head of the youth (51 AD)
  • Chicago becomes incorporated as a city (1837)
  • US Revolutionary War: The Americans capture Dorchester Heights dominating the port of Boston, Massachusetts (1776)
  • First Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs, takes office (1791)
  • Thomas Jefferson becomes the first president inaugurated in Washington DC (1801)
  • FDR inaugrated as 32nd president, pledges to pull US out of Depression & says “We have nothing to fear but fear itself” (1933)
  • WW2: Princess Elizabeth, later Queen Elizabeth II, joins the British Auxiliary Transport Service as a driver (1945)
  • Over 1,100 Christian organizations combined to form the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability ECFA (1979)
  • First flight of the airship Hindenburg at Friedrichshafen, Germany (1936)
  • President James A. Garfield was baptized at age 18 (1850)
  • Territory of Idaho established (1863)
  • Birth of Gloria Gaither (1942)
  • Oranges introduced to Hawaii (1792)
  • Happy Birthday To You published by Claydon Sunny (1924)
  • Lucille Ball files divorce from Desi Arnaz (1960)

March 5:

  • US Revolutionary War: Boston Massacre when British soldiers kill 5 men in a crowd throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks at them (1770)
  • Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech in the US popularizes the term and draws attention to the rise of Communism in Europe (1946)
  • Hula Hoop is patented (1963)
  • US Revolutionary War: John Hancock delivers the fourth annual Massacre Day oration, a commemoration of the Boston Massacre, and denounces the presence of British troops in Boston (1776)
  • Abolitionists establish “Crispus Attucks Day” in Boston in honor of the first man to die in the Boston Massacre who was an African American (1858)
  • Nikola Tesla, in Electrical World and Engineer, describes the process of the ball lightning formation (1904)
  • WW2: Germany’s Nazi Party wins majority in parliament  (1933)
  • Samuel Colt manufactures first pistol, 34-caliber “Texas” model (1836)
  • Smoking tobacco introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes (1558)
  • In Boston, editor Thomas Prince published the first issue of The Christian History, the first religious journal published in America (1743)
  • Missionary Henry Nott arrived in Tahiti and spent 22 years preaching before seeing his first convert, the violent king Pomare II (1797)
  • George Müller and Henry Craik formed The Scripture Knowledge Institution, for Home and Abroad without any money and a resolve not to ask for donations or accept money from the unsaved (1834)
  • Graves of Tsar Nicholas II and entire family found in St Petersburg (1995)
  • Joseph Stalin dies (1953)
  • English King Henry VII hands John Cabot a commission to explore for new lands (1496)
  • Mother-in-law’s day first celebrated (1934)
  • First American temperance law enacted in Virginia (1623)
  • Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90,000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a campaign which would bring about his own death (363 AD)

This Week in History 2/20 – 2/26

Historyby Tamera Lynn Kraft

This Week in History

February 20:

  • John Glenn is first American to orbit Earth (1962)
  • Kepler-37b, the smallest known exoplanet, is discovered (2013)
  • US Postal Service Act creating US Postal Service is signed by President George Washington (1792)
  • Death of Kathryn Kuhlman (1946)
  • WW2: American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies (1943)
  • Hydraulic electric elevator patented by Cyrus Baldwin (1872)
  • Luther Crowell patents a machine that manufactures paper bags (1872)
  • Silas Noble & JP Cooley patents toothpick manufacturing machine (1872)
  • First territorial legislature of Hawaii convenes (1901)
  • State of Prussia ceases to exist (1947)
  • WW2: Nazis order Polish Jews barred from using public transportation (1901)
  • WW2: Batman & Robin comic strip premieres in newspapers (1944)
  • Tennessee Governor W C Brownlow declares martial law in Ku Klux Klan crisis (1869)
  • Rutherford, author Apology of Divine Grace which refuted salvation based on works, was exiled from England (1636)
  • New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art opens (1872)

February 21:

  • Francis Crick and James Watson discover structure of DNA-molecule (1953)
  • US Congress passes Presidential Succession Act (1792)
  • US Congress resolves establishment of a US mint (1782)
  • Washington Monument dedicated (1885)
  • First known sewing machine patented in US (1842)
  • Freedom of worship was established in France under the constitution that came out of the French Revolution (1795)
  • Eric Liddell, Olympic champion runner from the film Chariots of Fire who later became missionary to China and was captured by the Japanese during WWII, died of a brain tumor while still imprisoned (1945)
  • Joan of Arc’s first day of interrogation during her trial for heresy (1430)
  • The Prussian Confederation is formed (1440)
  • NC Legislature, adjourns for day to mark death of Frederick Douglass (1895)
  • Rights activist Malcolm X is shot dead by Nation of Islam followers at Audubon Ballroom in New York City (1965)
  • Watergate figures John Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman & John D Ehrlichman sentenced to prison terms for conspiracy and obstruction of justice (1975)
  • Richard Nixon becomes 1st US president to visit China (1972)
  • Oregon becomes first US state to make Labor Day a holiday (1887)
  • Alka Seltzer introduced (1931)
  • First American Indian newspaper in US, Cherokee Phoenix, published (1828)
  • World’s Fair in San Francisco opens (1915)
  • Walter Taylor, missionary to railroad men and miners in Colorado and at the Old Brewery Mission in Montreal, gave his life to Christ after his Christian wife died (1896)
  • British poet Robert Southwell was hanged and quartered for treason for being a Catholic (1595)
  • Ranavalona II, ruler of Madagascar, and her court converted to Christianity ending decades of persecution (1869)
  • Jackson 5 make TV debut on American Bandstand (1970)
  • Camera exposure meter patented (1932)
  • Jimmy Swaggert admitted to visiting a prostitute and announced he would be leaving his ministry for an unspecified length of time (1988)

February 22:

  • Black evangelist William J. Seymour first arrived in Los Angeles and began holding revival meetings which, latter that year, broke out into the Azuza Street Revival (1906)
  • Dolly the Sheep, world’s first cloned mammal, is announced by the Roslin Institute in Scotland (1997)
  • Indians introduce pilgrims to popcorn (1930)
  • Russia & Britain establish Alaska-Canada boundary (1825)
  • Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery (1865)
  • President Cleveland signs bill to admit Dakotas, Montana, and Washington as US states (1889)
  • WW2: President Franklin Roosevelt orders General Douglas MacArthur out of the Philippines as American defenses collapse (1942)
  • WW2: Members of White Rose, a nonviolent resistance group, are executed in Nazi Germany (1943)
  • Hawaii becomes US territory (1900)
  • Due to drought the US side of Niagara Falls runs short of water (1903)
  • Johns Hopkins University opens (1876)
  • First national meeting of Republican Party (1856)
  • Airplanes are no longer permitted to fly over the White House (1935)
  • Vietnam War: 25,000 US & South Vietnamese troops launch Operation Junction City against Viet Cong. Largest US airborne assult since WWII (1967)
  • First national convention of Prohibition Party in Columbus Ohio (1872)
  • It Happened One Night starring Clark Gable premieres in New York City (1935)

February 23:

  • Polycarp, the last church leader personally taught by the apostles whose mentor was John the Apostle, was burned at the stake (155 AD)
  • Johannes Gutenberg prints his first book, Bible (1455)
  • The Great Persecution by Roman Emperor Diocletian begins when Christians were dragged off and tortured them to death, employing the rack, the scourge, slow fires, crucifixion, and many other barbarities (303 AD)
  • First mass inoculation against polio with Salk vaccine (1954)
  • Plutonium was first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg (1941)
  • Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders (1998)
  • WW2: US Marines raise flag on Iwo Jima depicted by a famous photo and later a statue in the Marine Corps War Memorial (1945)
  • 13 day siege of the Alamo begins (1836)
  • US Civil War: Mississippi is readmitted to US (1870)
  • Boston, Massachusetts, is incorporated as a city (1822)
  • Walt Disney’s animated movie Pinocchio released (1940)
  • WW1: First victory of Red Army over the Kaiser’s German troops near Narva and Pskov (1918)
  • Vietnam War: US troops begin largest offensive of Vietnam War (1967)
  • Wilt Chamberlain becomes first NBAer to score 25,000 points (1968)
  • Gulf War: US insists Iraq publicly announce it is leaving Kuwait by 12 PM EST (1991)
  • Nevada enforces convenient divorce law (1915)
  • Tootsie Roll introduced by Leo Hirshfield (1896)
  • WW2: Fascist Party forms in Italy by Benito Mussolini (1919)
  • President Calvin Coolidge creates Federal Radio Commission (1927)
  • Dow Jones closes above 4,000 for first time (1995)

February 24:

  • Pope Gregory XIII issued a bull that Catholic nations accept the Gregorian Calendar and that October 4th be followed by October 15th that year to make the calendar in sync with the rotation of the Earth (1582)
  • First official Roman edict for persecution of Christians issued by Emperor Diocletian officially beginning the Great Persecution (303 AD)
  • US House of Representatives vote 126 to 47 to impeach President Andrew Johnson (1868)
  • US Supreme Court 1st rules a law unconstitutional – Marbury v Madison (1803)
  • Arizona Territory created (1863)
  • WW1: German plan to get Mexican help in the war is exposed when the Zimmerman Telegram is intercepted (1917)
  • Britain’s Prince Charles announces engagement to Lady Diana Spencer (1981)
  • Israel & Egypt sign an armistice agreement (1949)
  • Communist Party seizes complete control of Czechoslovakia (1948)
  • Antibaptists voted to accept a confession of faith now known as the Schleitheim Confession (1527)
  • St Francis of Assisi, 26, received his vocation in Portiuncula Italy (1208)
  • King Ethelbert of Kent in England, who was converted to Christianity by St. Augustine, died (616 AD)
  • Mahatma Gandhi released from jail (1924)
  • South Africa announces it is constructing largest modern day blimp (1997)
  • Mass arrests of the mafia in the US (1923)
  • WW2: The “Battle of Los Angeles” takes place (1942)

February 25:

  • First cabinet meeting takes place at George Washington’s home in Mount Vernon (1793)
  • Hiram R. Revels, Republican senator from Mississippi, is sworn in as the first African American member of Congress (1870)
  • Samuel Colt patents 1st revolving barrel multi-shot firearm (1836)
  • The 16th Amendment to the US Constitution becomes law providing the legal basis for the institution of a graduated income tax (1913)
  • League of Nations set up by Paris Treaty (1919)
  • US Civil War: Paper currency, greenbacks, introduced in US by Pres Abraham Lincoln (1862)
  • US Congress passes first federal quarantine legislation (1799)
  • First Bank of US chartered (1791)
  • Elizabeth I of England was excommunicated by Pope Pius V for her severe persecution of Roman Catholics in England, the last such judgment made against a reigning monarch by any pope (1570)
  • First use of “insanity plea” to prove innocence (1859)
  • WW2: Immigrant Adolf Hitler gets German citizenship (1932)
  • Bread in Berlin rises to 2,000 marks (1923)
  • The Baptist General Tract Society was organized (1824)
  • Pioneer missionary Eduard L. Arndt first arrived in Shanghai, China, 10 months after having founded the Evangelical Lutheran Missions for China (1913)
  • First performing monkey exhibited in America (1751)

February 26:

  • 15th Amendment guaranteeing right to vote, regardless of race, color, or former servitude, sent to states to ratify (1969)
  • WW2: German Luftwaffe is re-formed under Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering (1935)
  • WW2: First female US navy captain, Sue Dauser of nurse corps, appointed (1945)
  • Spanish Inquisition delivers injunction to Galileo (1616)
  • Marx & Engels publish Communist Manifesto (1848)
  • Second tallest building in world, NYC World Trade Center, bombed (1993)
  • Last total eclipse of Sun in 20th century for continental US (1979)
  • Congress forms Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona (1919)
  • Grand Tetons National Park established (1929)
  • Golden Gate Bridge ground-breaking ceremony held at Crissy Field (1933)
  • Acadia National Park forms in Maine (1919)
  • WW2: Trial against Hitler in Munich begins (1924)
  • First red & green traffic lights installed in Manhattan (1930)
  • WW2: Italian nationalist & fascists merge, blue-shirts & black-shirts (1919)
  • Napoleon Bonaparte & his supporters leave Elba to start a 100-day re-conquest of France (1815)
  • Gandhi supports the African People’s Organizations resolution to declare the day of arrival of the Prince of Wales in South Africa as a day of mourning in protest against the South Africa Acts disenfranchisement of Indians, Coloreds and Africans in the upcoming Union of South Africa (1910)

Today in History 2/13 – 2/19

HistoryToday in History

February 13:

  • Abraham Lincoln declared president of the United States (1861)
  • The last original Peanuts comic strip appears in newspapers one day after Charles M. Schulz dies (2000)
  • Israel acquires 4 of 7 Dead Sea scrolls (1955)
  • US Civil War: First military action to result in Congressional Medal of Honor in Arizona (1861)
  • First US surgical operation for relief of angina pectoris in Cleveland, Ohio (1935)
  • Barbie doll goes on sale (1959)
  • Dissident Nobel writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn expelled from USSR (1974)
  • WW2: Women’s Marine Corps created (1943)
  • British Parliament adopts the Bill of Rights which establishes the rights of parliament and places limits on the crown (1689)
  • Longest sentence published by New York Times-1286 words (1981)
  • Moving picture projector patented (1895)
  • The American Temperance Society, later renamed the American Temperance Union, was organized in Boston (1826)
  • Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before Inquisition for professing belief that earth revolves around the Sun (1633)
  • Johann Strauss’ “Blue Danube” waltz premieres in Vienna (1867)
  • Flemish missionary Joris van Geel departs to Congo (1651)
  • Jesse James holds up his first bank, Liberty, Missouri (1866)
  • Death of Lloyd C. Douglas, Congregational clergyman and novelist (1951)
  • The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics discovers the universe’s largest known diamond, white dwarf star BPM 37093 (2004)
  • Riot in New York due to a combination of poverty and increase in the cost of flour (1837)

February 14:

  • Valentine was martyred (269 AD)
  • Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of U.S. Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is void (1809)
  • First “micro on a chip” patented by Texas Instrument (1978)
  • A G Bell & Elisha Gray apply separately for telephone patents; Supreme Court eventually rules Bell rightful inventor (1876)
  • Russian-born English chemist and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann was elected first president of the modern state of Israel (1949)
  • St Valentine’s Day Massacre in Chicago, 7 gangsters killed, allegedly on Al Capone’s orders (1929)
  • US President Richard Nixon installs secret taping system in White House (1971)
  • Theodore Roosevelt’s wife and mother die on the same day (1884)
  • Oregon admitted as 33rd US state (1849)
  • Arizona was admitted as the 48th US state (1912)
  • Slavic apostle, Cyril, was martyred (869 AD)
  • Bruno, missionary to Prussia, was martyred by Prussians (1009)
  • Richard Allen, the first black ordained in the Methodist Episcopal Church and founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, was born in slavery (1760)
  • James Knox Polk becomes first serving US President to have his photograph taken (1849)
  • US first lady Jacqueline Kennedy conducts White House tour on TV (1962)
  • Henry Ware was confirmed as the first Unitarian professor to teach at Harvard University causing Congregationalist teachers to withdraw (1805)
  • US Congress begins using voting machines (1899)
  • UPS forms (1919)
  • U.S. Rabbinical Assembly of Conservative Judaism announced their decision to begin accepting women as rabbis (1985)
  • First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire (1804)
  • Lt. John C. Frémont becomes first European to discover Lake Tahoe in the US (1844)
  • Galena, first US iron-clad warship for service at sea, launched (1862)
  • Morehouse College organizes (1867)
  • Venus is both a morning star & evening star (1894)
  • Release of first Dracula movie (1931)
  • $3.6 million heroin seizure in NYC (1959)

February 15:

  • Congress authorizes women lawyers to practice before Supreme Court (1879)
  • Black abolitionists invade Boston courtroom rescuing a fugitive slave (1851)
  • US Civil War: Charges of Treason against Confederate President Jefferson Davis are dropped (1869)
  • Battleship Maine explodes (1898)
  • Sarah Roberts barred from white school in Boston (1848)
  • President-elect Franklin Roosevelt survives assassination attempt (1933)
  • New Jersey becomes last northern state to abolish slavery (1804)
  • Jogaila, king of the Lithuania, the last heathen nation in Europe, was converted to Christianity and baptized as the first Lithuanian known Christian (1386)
  • St. Louis, Missouri founded as a French trading post by Pierre Laclade Ligue (1764)
  • Walt Disney’s Cinderella released (1950)
  • First Teddy Bear introduced in America named after Theodore Roosevelt (1903)
  • The Boy Scouts of America founded (1910)
  • WW2: Hitler announces building of Volkswagens (1936)
  • First adhesive postage stamps in US (1842)
  • Wheaton College was chartered in Illinois under Methodist sponsorship (1860)
  • Lewis Wallace, the author of Ben Hur, died (1905)
  • Philosopher Socrates sentenced to death by the city of Athens for corrupting the minds of the youth (399 BC)

February 16:

  • Pamphilius, church scholar who saved accurate copies of Scripture and records of church history, was beheaded for refusing to worship idols and renounce Christ (309 AD)
  • Pope Gregory the Great decrees saying “God bless You” is the correct response to a sneeze (600 AD)
  • WW1: US rejects the right of Germany and Austria-Hungary to sink armed merchant ships (1916)
  • WW1: The German ambassador in Washington announces that Germany will pay an indemnity for American lives lost on the Lusitania (1916)
  • Fidel Castro names himself Cuba’s premier after overthrowing Batista (1959)
  • American Charles Wilkes discovers Shackleton Ice Shelf, Antarctica (1840)
  • WW2: Catholic newspaper, Germania, warns against Nazis/communists (1933)
  • African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church officially separated from its parent, the Methodist Episcopal Church (1801)
  • Elvis Presley receives gold record for How Great Thou Art (1968)
  • Howard Carter opens the inner burial chamber of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen’s tomb and finds the sarcophagus (1923)
  • Kentucky passes law permitting women to attend school under conditions (1838)
  • Former silver Goodyear blimps are now painted yellow & blue (1992)
  • US Civil War: Fort Donelson is captured by General Ulysses S. Grant following the surrender of around 12,000 Confederate soldiers (1862)
  • Ladies Home Journal begins publishing (1883)
  • Philip Schwarzerd, known as the brains behind the Protestant Reformation, was born (1497)
  • First patent for a tree issued to James Markham for a peach tree (1932)
  • First known cheque, £400 (1659)
  • China announces it will relocate 9,000 people in Guizhou province, before completion of world’s largest telescope – FAST, designed to look for extraterrestrial life (2016)

February 17:

  • US House of Representatives breaks electoral college tie when it chooses Thomas Jefferson president over Burr (1801)
  • Myles Standish is elected as the first commander of the Plymouth Colony (1621)
  • US Civil War: Mississippi becomes 9th Confederate state readmitted to US (1870)
  • Golda Meir, nee Mabovitch, was sworn in as Israel’s first female prime minister (1969)
  • Esther Morris appointed first female in Justice of the Peace in the United States (1870)
  • Giordano Bruno became the last heretic to be burned at the stake by the Roman Inquisition (1591)
  • Billy Sunday, baseball player-turned-preacher, made his first appearance as an evangelist in Chicago (1889)
  • The world’s first superhero, The Phantom, makes his first appearance in comics (1936)
  • Waldensians, fiercely persecuted and martyred for centuries, were  guaranteed of civil and religious rights (1858)
  • U.S. Supreme Court declared unconstitutional an act of the Virginia Legislature which denied property rights to Protestant Episcopal churches in the state ruling that religious corporations have rights to their property (1815)
  • US Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina burns to the ground (1865)
  • 6-week study of Arctic atmosphere shows no ozone “hole” (1989)
  • Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II agrees to pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire for peace (1568)
  • British Parliament votes to join European Common Market (1972)

February 18:

  • Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan, the most popular Christian book next to the Bible, was published (1678)
  • Four Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvania wrote a protest against enslavement of blacks known as the Germantown Protest (1688)
  • US astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto (1930)
  • US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis inaugurated at Montgomery, Alabama (1861)
  • Infamous Lincoln County War in New Mexico ignites after a murder (1874)
  • Spanish Jesuits in the Chesapeake Bay area were martyred by the Indians they had come six months earlier to convert (1571)
  • Crash during Daytona 500 race on last lap claims life of Dale Earnhardt (2001)
  • Mark Twain publishes the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885)
  • Space Shuttle Enterprise above a Boeing 747 goes on its maiden flight (1977)
  • H Cecil Booth patented a dust removing suction cleaner (1901)
  • First US postage stamps in rolls issued (1908)
  • The first Academy Awards are announced (1929)
  • FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for spying for the Soviet Union (2001)
  • King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia becomes first King of Italy (1861)

February 19:

  • Vice President Aaron Burr arrested in Alabama for treason, later acquitted (1807)
  • Alexander Mack, founder of the Dunkards aka German Baptists several American Brethren denominations, died (1735)
  • WW2: US 5th Fleet launches invasion of Iwo Jima against the Japanese with 30,000 US Marines (1945)
  • Tin-type camera patented by Hamilton Smith (1856)
  • Thomas Edison patents gramophone (1878)
  • Death of Miles Coverdale, translator and publisher of the first complete Bible to be printed in English (1768)
  • Donner Party rescued after practicing cannibalism to stay alive (1847)
  • US Congress votes to make Ohio 17th state (1803)
  • Texas state government formally installed in Austin (!846)
  • Kansas becomes first state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages (1881)
  • Tornadoes in Miss, Ala, NC, SC, Tenn, Ky & In kill 800 people (1884)
  • Emperor Constantius II shuts all heathen temples (356 AD)
  • An Oklahoma City bombing museum is dedicated at the Oklahoma City National Memorial (2001)
  • Congregational missionaries Adoniram and Ann Judson, first sailed from New England to Calcutta, India (1812)
  • WW2: Presidential Executive Order 9066 began placing 100,000 persons of Japanese ancestry into ten “relocation centers” (1942)
  • Typhoid Mary, Mary Mallon, is freed from her first periods of forced isolation and goes on to cause several further outbreaks of typhoid in the New York area (1910)
  • Medieval Iconoclastic Controversy ends as a council in Constantinople formally reinstated the veneration of icons in the churches (842 AD)
  • First prize inserted into a Cracker Jack box (1913)
  • Keith Kellogg and Charles D. Bolin found the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company which is now the multinational food manufacturer Kellogg’s (1906)
  • Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom (1861)

Today in History 2/6 – 2/12

HistoryToday in History

February 6:

  • US Revolutionary War: France recognizes USA, signs Treaty of Alliance in Paris; first US treaty (1778)
  • US Revolutionary War: Britain declares war on France (1778)
  • Massachusetts becomes 6th state to ratify constitution (1788)
  • Monopoly board game goes on sale for first time (1935)
  • Maximilian I proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor,though 1st Emperor in centuries not to be crowned by the Pope (1508)
  • Solidarity union leader Lech Wałęsa begins negotiating with Polish Communist government (1989)
  • WW2: German President Paul von Hindenburg and Franz von Papen end the Prussian parliament (1933)
  • No-smoking rules take effect in US federal buildings (1987)
  • The first Spanish Inquisition “Auto da fe” which means “Act of Faith” was held when six men and six women, who refused to repent of alleged backsliding, were burned at the stake (1481)
  • Radio commentator Paul Harvey arrested for trying to sneak into Argonne National Laboratory, a nuclear test site located 20 miles west of Chicago (1951)
  • First great train robbery by Dalton Gang (1891)
  • John Calvin preached his last sermon (1564)
  • Queen Elizabeth II succeeds King George VI to the British throne (1952)
  • The first minstrel show in the United States The Virginia Minstrels, opens (1843)
  • Station KFSG, Kall Four Square Gospel, went on the air and broadcast the services of Angelus Temple, the church founded by Aimee Semple Mc Pherson (1924)
  • Queen Elizabeth II marks the 60th anniversary of becoming British monarch, becoming only the second to do so (2012)
  • Queen Elizabeth II succeeds King George VI to the British throne (1952)
  • Singer Frank Sinatra debuts on radio’s Your Hit Parade (1943)

February 7:

  • WW2: German theologian Deitrich Bonhoeffer was sent to Buchenwald Concentration Camp for his part in the resistance to Nazis (1945)
  • 11th Amendment to US Constitution ratified affirming the power of states (1795)
  • WW2: Dr. Josef Mengele, the infamous Nazi doctor who performed medical experiments at the Auschwitz death camps, dies of a stroke while swimming in Brazil (1979)
  • John Deere, pioneer American blacksmith and manufacturer of agricultural equipment who founded Deere & Company, is born (1804)
  • Senator Joe McCarthy finds “communists” in US Department of State (1950)
  • Walt Disney’s 2nd feature-length movie, Pinocchio, premieres (1940)
  • Author Charles Dickens is born (1812)
  • 8.2 earthquake shakes New Madrid, Missouri, the largest earthquake in the United States (1812)
  • Earthquake causes tsunami in Mississippi (1812)
  • The Mud March was the first large procession organized by the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (1907)
  • Beatles arrive in New York (1964)
  • Cassius Clay converts to Islam and renames himself Muhammad Ali (1964)
  • Charlie Chaplin debuts The Tramp (1914)
  • Birth of Hannah Whitall Smith, American Quaker evangelist and devotional author (1832)
  • Harvey Samuel Firestone, founder Firestone Tire Company, dies (1938)

February 8:

  • According to The Handbook of Biblical Chronology, Paul left Malta to sail to Rome (58 AD)
  • Stars & Stripes, weekly US armed forces newspaper, first published (1918)
  • US Civil War: Confederate States of America organizes in Montgomery, Alabama (1861)
  • WW2: Lodtz, first large ghetto established by Nazis in Poland, opens (1940)
  • US Civil War: Martin Robison Delany become first black man appointed as a major in US Army (1865)
  • D. W. Griffith’s silent film “The Birth of a Nation” opens at Clune’s Auditorium in Los Angeles and depicts slavery and KKK as good – first 12-reel film in America (1915)
  • Isaac Newton reads first optics paper before Royal Society in London (1672)
  • WW2: Harry McAlpin becomes first black reporter accredited to White House,  (1944)
  • Under the Dawes Act, Indians living apart from tribe granted citizenship (1887)
  • Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio becomes Walt Disney Studios (1926)
  • The College of William and Mary was founded in Williamsburg, Virginia for the purpose of educating Anglican clergyman (1693)
  • Enforcement Act repealed making it easier to enact Jim Crow laws and disenfranchise blacks (1894)
  • The Boy Scouts of America is incorporated by William D. Boyce (1910)
  • Elizabeth II is proclaimed Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, etc (1952)
  • As Roman troops surrounded the church in Alexandria, Egypt, Bishop Athanasius escaped for the third time (356 AD)
  • Peter the Great, emperor of Russia, dies and is succeeded by his wife, Catherine (1725)
  • Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake premieres in St Petersburg (1895)
  • Giordano Bruno, astronomer who was called a martyr for science, was condemned to death by the Vatican
  • Mary Queen of Scots beheaded (1587)
  • Paul Brown agrees to coach the new American football expansion team in Cleveland which would later be named the Cleveland Browns after their coach (1945)
  • Last edition of Saturday Evening Post (1969)
  • 1800 Unification church couples wed in Korea (1975)
  • The first execution by lethal gas in American history is carried out in Carson City, Nevada. when Tong Lee, head of a Chinese gang, is executed (1924)

February 9:

  • Apollonia of Alexandria, a Christian teenager threw herself in the fire a mob had build to martyr her when she was ordered to deny Christ (249 AD)
  • WW2: Japanese troops evacuate Guadalcanal, ends epic WWII battle on the Solomon Islands in the Pacific (1943)
  • US Civil War: Jefferson Davis & Alexander Stephens elected President & VP of the Confederate States of America  (1861)
  • US Civil War: Tennessee votes against secession (1861)
  • US Army establishes US National Weather Service (1870)
  • Puritan John Hooper was burned at the stake during Queen Mary’s reign (1555)
  • American Indian Society organizes (1822)
  • First federal legislation prohibiting narcotics is enacted against opium (1909)
  • WW2: Nazi collaborators destroy pro-Jewish café Alcazar in Amsterdam when Alcazar refused to hang “No Entry for Jews” signs in front of cafe (1941)
  • House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams sixth US president (1825)
  • WW2: Daylight Savings War Time goes into effect in US (1942)
  • First appearance of Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show (1964)

February 10:

  • Apostle Paul thought to have been shipwrecked at Malta (60 AD)
  • Joseph Lister, surgeon who discovers germs caused infections, died (1912)
  • The Church of England first authorized use of the 1885 English Revised Version of the Bible in Anglican liturgy and worship (1899)
  • USSR swaps spy Francis Gary Power to US for Rudolph Abel as depicted in movie Bridge of Spies (1962)
  • Tom & Jerry created by Hanna & Barbera debut by MGM (1940)
  • Glenn Miller awarded first ever gold record for selling one million copies of Chattanooga Choo Choo (1942)
  • President Eisenhower warns against US intervention in Vietnam (1955)
  • YWCA, Young Women’s Christian Association, forms in New York City (1870)
  • First US fire extinguisher patent granted to Alanson Crane, Virginia (1863)
  • Japan and Russia declare war (1904)
  • Author Laura Ingalls Wilder dies at age 90 (1957)
  • Shirley Temple dies at age 85 (2014)
  • Beginning of Mormon march to western US (1846)
  • New York Times begins using slogan “All the News That’s Fit to Print” (1897)
  • IBM computer Deep Blue becomes the first computer to win a game of chess against a reigning human chess champion, Gary Kasparov (1996)
  • Glenn Miller awarded first ever gold record for selling one million copies of Chattanooga Choo Choo (1942)

February 11:

  • WW2: US General Eisenhower selected to command the allied armies in Europe (1942)
  • Robert Fulton patents steamboat (1809)
  • US Civil War: US House unanimously passes resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state (1861)
  • US Revolutionary War: Stamp Act declared unconstitutional in Virginia (1666)
  • Vatican City was established as the smallest nation in the world at 109 acres (1929)
  • Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, heir to the Roman Emperorship, dies under mysterious circumstances in Rome clearing the way for Nero to become Emperor (55 AD)
  • Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu (660 BC)
  • Society of Friends petitions Congress for abolition of slavery (1790)
  • First vision of the Virgin Mary to 14-year-old Bernadette of Lourdes, France (1858)
  • Archie comic book debuts (1942)
  • Henry Kissinger unveils Nixon Administration’s seven-point “Project Independence” plan to make the U.S. energy independent (1990)
  • Henry VIII recognized as supreme head of Church in England following the schism with Rome following his divorce and excommunication (1531)
  • Henry Kissinger unveils Nixon Administration’s seven-point “Project Independence” plan to make the U.S. energy independent (1974)
  • American Physiological Society organizes in Boston (1837)
  • In Lourdes, France, 14-year-old French peasant Bernadette Soubirous experienced her first vision of the Virgin Mary (1858)
  • Rev. Barbara C. Harris was consecrated in Boston as the first woman bishop in the Anglican Church (1989)
  • Pope Benedict XVI announces his resignation from February 28, the first pope to resign since 1415 (2013)

February 12:

  • The Pentecostal awakening known as the “Latter Rain Movement” traces its origin to this date when students at the Sharon Orphanage and Schools in North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada began experiencing a mass spiritual awakening (1948)
  • Abraham Lincoln is born in a log cabin in Kentucky (1809)
  • Dedication ceremony for the about to be constructed Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (1914)
  • Vietnam War: First US POWs in North Vietnam released when 116 of 456 flown to Philippines (1973)
  • Presbyterian minister Henry Highland Garnet, ex-slave, became the first black man to address US Congress when he preached against slavery (1865)
  • WW2: German troops entered Austria (1938)
  • Creek Indian treaty signed when Tribal chiefs agree to turn over all their land in Georgia to the government & migrate west by Sept 1, 1826 (1825)
  • Georgia founded by James Oglethorpe at site of Savannah (1733)
  • First US fugitive slave law passed requiring return of escaped slaves (1793)
  • Cotton Mather, Puritan preacher who supported Salem Witch Trials, was born (1663)
  • Queen of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey is executed for treason (1554)
  • Last Ch’ing Manchu emperor of China, Hsuan T’ung, abdicates (1912)

Today in History 1/30 – 2/5

HistoryToday in History

January 30:

  • Martin Luther King Jr.s home bombed (1956)
  • Burned US Library of Congress reestablished with Thomas Jefferson’s 6500 volumes (1815)
  • US Revolutionary War: Boston preacher Jonathan Mayhew delivered a sermon entitled, Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission which attacked both the divine right of kings and ecclesiastical absolutism and called for the repeal of the Stamp Act which contributed the the Stamp Act rebellion (1750)
  • King Charles I of England was beheaded after 5 years of civil war (1645)
  • WW2: President Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Reich Chancellor of Germany (1933)
  • WW2: Hitler proclamation on German Unified States (1934)
  • Around the World in 80 Days by Jules Verne is published (1873)
  • Lone Ranger begins a 21-year run on ABC radio (1933)
  • Bathilde, a Christian slave who rose to become queen and regent of France and worked to end slavery in France, died (680 AD)
  • Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and the man who had King Charles I executed, is ritually executed after having been dead for two years (1661)
  • Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by Nathuram Godse (1948)
  • Richard Lawrence misfires at President Andrew Jackson in Washington, D.C. in first attempted assassination of a US President (1835)
  • WW2: Hitler threatens the Jews during his speech to the German Reichstag (1939)
  • Bell chimes invented (1487)
  • The Beatles perform their last live gig, a 42 minute concert on the roof of Apple Corps HQ in London (1969)

January 31:

  • US Civil War: First black Civil War regiment, SC Volunteers, mustered into US army (1863)
  • US Civil War: General Robert E. Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies (1865)
  • Ham the chimpanzee is first primate in space, 158 miles, aboard Mercury/Redstone 2 (1961)
  • Three missionaries in Columbia were kidnapped by armed guerillas from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia known as FARC who demanded a ransom for their return and latter killed them (1993)
  • After the Milwaukee Bridge War, Juneautown and Kilbourntown unified as the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1846)
  • The United States orders all Native Americans to move into reservations (1876)
  • Strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake, Colombia, 8.6 Richter (1906)
  • US Civil War: State of Louisiana takes over US Mint at New Orleans (1861)
  • Gail Borden announces invention of condensed milk (1851)
  • John Mott, founder of Student Volunteer Mission and author of The Evangelization of the World in This Generation, died at 89 years old (1955)
  • Astronomer Alvan Graham Clark makes first observation of Sirius B, first known white dwarf star, while testing his new telescope (1862)
  • WW2: Private Eddie Slovik becomes the first American soldier since the Civil War to be executed for desertion and the only one who suffered such a fate during World War II (1945)

February 1:

  • Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts aboard (2003)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. & 700 demonstrators arrested in Selma, Alabama (1965)
  • American missionaries Charles and Lettie Cowman, founders of the Oriental Missions Society, sailed for Japan (1901)
  • US Supreme Court convenes for first time (1790)
  • Harriet Tubman is first black woman honored on a US postage stamp (1978)
  • Thomas Edison completes worlds first movie studio in West Orange, New Jersey (1893)
  • WW2: Fascists Voluntary Militia forms in Italy under Benito Mussolini (1923)
  • 4 students stage first civil rights sit-in in Greensboro North Carolina at Woolworth’s (1960)
  • Heavy blizzard in New England claims 100 lives (1977)
  • Vietnam War: Saigon police chief Nguyễn Ngọc Loan executes Viet Cong officer Nguyễn Văn Lém with a pistol shot to head. The execution is captured by photographer Eddie Adams and becomes an anti-war icon. (1968)
  • US Civil War: Texas secedes from the Union (1861)
  • Julia Howe publishes Battle Hymn of Republic (1862)
  • Queen Elizabeth I of England signs death warrant for her cousin, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1587)
  • Oxford English Dictionary debuts (1884)
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 15 years in exile (1979)
  • Diana, Princess of Wales visits New York City (1989)

February 2:

  • Radio Shack officially begins creating TRS-80 computer (1977)
  • Female Army Nurse Corps established as a permanent organization (1901)
  • Dogsleds reach Nome with emergency diphtheria serum after 1000-km (1925)
  • WW2: 2 days after becoming chancellor, Adolf Hitler dissolves the Reichstag-Parliament (1933)
  • WW2: Geneva disarmament conference begins with 60 countries (1932)
  • Giovanni da Plano Carpini set out for the heart of Mongol Asia to deliver the Gospel to Genghis Khan (1246)
  • The first formal church youth organization, The Christian Endeavor, was established (1881)
  • Ethyl gasoline first marketed, Dayton, Ohio (1923)
  • New Amsterdam becomes a city, later renamed New York (1653)
  • WW2: LA Times urges security measures against Japanese-Americans (1942)
  • Frank Sinatra’s singing debut in Indianapolis with Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (1940)
  • B.B. King’s 3 O’Clock Blues hits #1 on the US Billboard’s R&B hit parade to become his first national hit (1952)
  • WW2: Allied troops first set foot on Japanese territory (1944)
  • A British ship rescued marooned sailor Juan Fernandez from the Chilean island where he had been for 5 years inspiring the world’s first true narrative novel, Robinson Crusoe.(1709)
  • Samuel Clemens first uses the pen name Mark Twain in a Virginia City newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise (1863)
  • Al Capone sent to prison for tax evasion (1932)
  • Great Awakening preacher Henry Alline, known as “the Whitefield of Nova Scotia.”, died at age 36 (1784)
  • US Congressional Black Caucus organizes (1971)
  • First ship load of Chinese arrive in San Francisco (1848)
  • WW2: US auto factories switch from commercial to war production (1942)
  • President Eisenhower holds first televised presidential news conference (1955)
  • 3 men dance Charleston for 22 hours (1926)
  • Queen Victoria’s funeral (1901)
  • Idi Amin ousts Milton Obote to become dictator of Uganda (1971)
  • WW2: German 6th Army surrenders after Battle of Stalingrad (1943)
  • First movie close-up, of a sneeze, at Edison Studio, West Orange, New Jersey (1893)
  • GI Joe debuts (1964)

February 3:

  • WW2: After the ship the Dorchester was torpedoed by German U-boats, 4 chaplains encouraged and prayed with the men as they handed out life jackets and when the supply of life jackets ran out the chaplains gave the men their own and drowned while linking arms and praying (1943)
  • In Columbus, Ohio, a fellowship of independent Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational and United Brethren churches organized into a separate Protestant denomination known as the Christian Union (1864)
  • 16th Amendment allowing federal income tax is ratified (1913)
  • WW2: German Minister Hermann Goering bans social-democratic newspaper Vorwarts (1933)
  • First Groundhog Day (1884)
  • WW2: United States troops capture the Marshall Islands (1944)
  • US Supreme Court upheld Federal Wage & Hour law, sets minimum wages & maximum hours (1941)
  • “The Day the Music Died” plane crash kills musicians Buddy Holly, Richie Valens, J. P. Richardson, and pilot near Clear Lake, Iowa (1959)
  • President Kennedy bans all trade with Cuba except for food & drugs (1962)
  • WW2: Almost 1,000 Flying Fortresses drop 3,000 tons of bombs on Berlin (1945)
  • US Revolutionary War: Spain recognizes US independence (1783)
  • Nuclear physicist Klaus Fuchs arrested on spying charges (1950)
  • Whig Party holds its first national convention (1836)
  • Philadelphia establishes a “pesthouse” to quarantine immigrants (1743)
  • Mass execution of population, between 2,500 and 5,000, of Cesena, Italy (1377)
  • Territory of Illinois, including present-day Wisconsin, organizes (1809)
  • Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror inherits the throne of the Ottoman Empire (1451)
  • First paper money in America issued (1690)
  • The Communist Party of Vietnam is established (1930)
  • World’s first commercial cheese factory established, in Switzerland (1815)

February 4:

  • John Rogers, who printed the first complete authorized English translation of the Bible completing Tyndale’s work, was burned at the stake as he became the first martyr of Bloody Mary’s reign (1555)
  • Mark Zuckerberg launches Facebook from his Harvard dormitory room (2004)
  • First US electoral college chooses Washington & Adams as President and Vice-President (1789)
  • Rhabanus Maurus, author of first accurate and complete set of encyclopedias, died (856 AD)
  • The Codex Sinaiticus is discovered in Egypt (1859)
  • US Civil War: Confederate constitutional convention meets for first time and elects Jefferson Davis as the President of Confederacy (1861)
  • US Civil War: Robert E. Lee is named general-in-chief of Confederate forces
  • Free American Blacks settle Liberia, West Africa (1822)
  • Tens of thousands of people are stranded by floods in the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland (2012)
  • The Palestine National Congress appoints Yasser Arafat chairman of the PLO (1979)
  • Frances Havergal wrote Take My Life and Let It Be (1874)
  • WW2: USO founded (1941)
  • Shays’ Rebellion of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers fails (1787)
  • Patricia Hearst, daughter of publisher Randolph Hearst, kidnapped by Symbionese Liberation Army (1974)
  • Mormons leave Nauvoo, Illinois, for settlement in the west (1846)
  • J W Goodrich introduces rubber galoshes to public (1824)

February 5:

  • Evangelist Dwight L. Moody was born during a blizzard (1837)
  • In Japan, General Toyotomi Hideyoshi crucified 26 Christians (1597)
  • Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter & Saturn within 16 degrees (1962)
  • A major tornado outbreak across the Southern United States leaves at least 58 dead, the most since the May 31, 1985 outbreak that killed 88 (2008)
  • Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island and champion of religious freedom, arrived in America (1631)
  • Separation of church & state begins in USSR (1918)
  • Great Awakening preachers John and Charles Wesley first arrived in America (1736)
  • Chicago Evangelization Society, forerunner of Moody Bible Institute, was founded on Moody’s 50th birthday (1887)
  • US population reaches 200 million (1969)
  • The United States and the United Kingdom sign treaty for Panama Canal (1900)
  • Articles of Confederation ratified by first state, South Carolina (1778)
  • Reader’s Digest magazine first published (1922)
  • US airlines begin mandatory inspection of passengers & baggage (1972)
  • Georgia becomes first US state to abolish both entail & primogeniture which requires entire estates to go completely to first born male heir (1777)
  • Loop-the-loop centrifugal roller coaster patented by Ed Prescot (1901)
  • National Wildlife Federation forms (1936)
  • US Revolutionary War: Sweden recognizes US independence (1783)
  • Phoenix, Arizona incorporates (1881)
  • American occupation of Cuba ends (1904)

This Week in History 1/23 – 1/29

HistoryThis Week in History

January 23:

  • Vietnam War: US President Nixon announces an accord has been reached to end Vietnam War (1973)
  • Mrs Elizabeth Blackwell becomes first woman physician in US (1844)
  • 24th Amendment to the United States Constitution ratified, barring poll tax in federal elections (1964)
  • Israeli Knesset resolves Jerusalem is capital of Israel (1950)
  • Supreme Court rules cities & states have right to censor films (1961)
  • 20th amendment ratified changed date of US presidential inaugurations to 20th January (1933)
  • Uniform US election day for president & VP authorized (1845)
  • Shaanxi Earthquake, deadliest ever recorded kills 830,000 in Shensi Province, China (1556)
  • Miniseries “Roots” premieres on ABC (1977)
  • Scottish Presbyterians sell captured Charles I to English parliament (1647)
  • Blizzard delivers record snow to 80 US states, New York 30 inches of snow. Washington 28 inches at least 15 killed (2016)
  • French scientist and mathematician Blaise Pascal published the first of his 18 Provincial Lettres criticizing the morality of the Jesuits (1656)
  • Patent granted for an envelope-making machine (1849)
  • Clyde Tombaugh photographs planet Pluto (1930)
  • The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Father Louis Hennepin Bridge (1855)

January 24:

  • Winston Churchill dies (1965)
  • James Marshall discovers gold along the banks of Sutter’s Creek in California (1848)
  • First games played in baseball’s American League (1901)
  • General Baden-Powell starts Boy Scouts (1908)
  • WW2: Shoichi Yokoi, a Japanese sergeant, was discovered who was unaware that World War II had ended (1972)
  • Lord Baltimore’s representative Margaret Brent ejected from the Maryland Council after requesting right to vote (1648)
  • US Civil War: Arsenal at Augusta, Georgia, seized by Confederacy (1861)
  • Connecticut colony organizes under Fundamental Orders (1639)
  • Eskimo Pie patented by Christian K Nelson of Iowa (1922)
  • Claudius succeeds his nephew Caligula as Roman Emperor after his assassination by Praetorian Guards (41 AD)
  • Irene Ferrel, missionary in the Congo, was martyred by Marxist Jeunesse while awaiting air support to rescue her. Her fellow missionary, Ruth Hege, was wounded but survived. (1964)
  • Jackie Robinson is 1st African American elected to Baseball’s Hall of Fame (1962)
  • Edward Wigglesworth, a Unitarian, was commissioned to the Thomas Hollis chair as divinity professor, a move that moved Harvard toward liberalism (1722)
  • 28 refugees escape from East to West Germany (1962)
  • 24th Amendment to US Constitution goes into effect declaring states voting rights could not be denied due to failure to pay taxes (1964)
  • Rubber heel patented by Humphrey O’Sullivan (1899)
  • Lehman Caves National Monument established (1922)
  • Aztec Ruins National Monument, NM established (1923)
  • Reverend Barbara C. Harris was confirmed as the first female bishop in the Anglican Church (1989)
  • Alfred Hitchcock releases his first film as director – The Pleasure Garden (1927)
  • The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation (2003)

January 25:

  • Russia declared a republic of Soviets (1918)
  • World’s largest diamond found in South Africa (1905)
  • First Winter Olympics (1925)
  • US Revolutionary War: Americans drag cannon up hill to fight British at Gun Hill Road in the Bronx (1775)
  • American naval expedition under Charles Wilkes first to identify Antarctica as a new continent (1840)
  • Founding of League of Nations (1919)
  • Soda fountain patented by Gustavus Dows (1870)
  • Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company (1881)
  • Congress determines presidential election between Hayes-Tilden (1877)
  • 52 Americans held hostage by Iran for 444 days arrived back in US (1981)
  • Nellie Bly beats Phileas Fogg’s time around world by 80 days by making it in 72 days (1890)
  • Florence Tim-Oi Lee of Macao was ordained a priest in Kwangtung Province, China, the first ever ordained female Anglican clergyperson (1944)
  • Mendelssohn’s “Wedding March” first played, at wedding of Queen Victoria’s daughter Princess Victoria, to crown prince of Prussia (1858)
  • WW2: Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie arrested in Bolivia (1983)

January 26:

  • The first General Assembly of the Church of God, the oldest Pentecostal denomination, convened (1906)
  • US Civil War: Lincoln issues General War Order #1, calling for a Union offensive, General George McClellan ignores order (1862)
  • US Civil War: Louisiana secedes from the Union (1861)
  • US Civil War: Massachusetts Governor receives permission from Secretary of War to raise a militia organization for men of African descent known as the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (1863)
  • WW2: Nazi Germany & Poland sign 10-year non-aggression treaty (1934)
  • Executive Order 9981 ending racial segregation in US Armed Forces signed (1948)
  • Condoleezza Rice is sworn in as U.S. Secretary of State, becoming the first African American woman to hold the post (2005)
  • US Civil War: Lincoln issues General War Order #1 calling for a Union offensive, General George McClellan ignores order (1862)
  • Chicago Blizzard strikes with a record 23 inches of snow fall causing 800 buses and 50,000 automobiles to be abandoned (1967)
  • First public demonstration of television by John Logie Baird in his laboratory in London (1926)
  • Isaac Newton receives Jean Bernoulli’s 6 month time-limit problem, solves problem before going to bed that same night (1697)
  • Congress passes an act calling for a US Capitol library (1837)
  • Benjamin Franklin expresses unhappiness over eagle as America’s symbol, he wanted a turkey (1784)
  • World’s largest diamond, the 3,106-carat Cullinan, is found in South Africa (1905)
  • Spanish explorer Vicente Yanez Pinzon becomes the first European to set foot in Brazil (1500)
  • US Civil War: Virginia rejoins US (1870)
  • Tennessee enacts the first prohibition law in the United States (1838)
  • Congress passes an act calling for a US Capitol library (1802)
  • President Bill Clinton says “I want to say one thing to the American people; I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky” (1998)
  • Cleveland, Ohio’s Terminal Tower opens (1930)

January 27:

  • Vietnam War: US & North Vietnam’s William Rogers & Nguyen Duy Trinh sign cease-fire, ending longest US war and military draft (1973)
  • U.S. Congress approves Indian Territory in what is present-day Oklahoma clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the Trail of Tears (1825)
  • Thomas Edison patents electric incandescent lamp (1880)
  • Astronauts Virgil “Gus” Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chafee die in Apollo 1 launch pad fire (1967)
  • Physicist Erwin Schrödinger publishes his theory of wave mechanics and presents what becomes known as the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics (1926)
  • Russia liberates Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camps in Poland (1945)
  • 14 spies hanged in Baghdad (1969)
  • WW2: Leningrad liberated from Germany in 880 days at the loss of 600,000 killed (1944)
  • 9 Jews publicly executed in Damascus, Syria (1969)
  • National Geographic Society organizes (1888)
  • Tarzan of the Apes, first Tarzan film, premieres at Broadway Theater (1918)
  • Rashidun Caliphate, then the largest empire in history, ends with death of Ali (1661)
  • Wolfgang Armedious Mozart was born (1756)

January 28:

  • US Coast Guard created from Life Saving & Revenue Cutter services (1915)
  • Challenger explodes (1986)
  • WW2: Japanese forces attack Shanghai (1932)
  • Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice” is published (1813)
  • The first locomotive runs from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean on the Panama Railway (1855)
  • Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev discover the continent of Antarctica (1820)
  • Work begins on the Eiffel Tower in Paris (1887)
  • In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the world’s largest snowflakes are reported being 15 inches wide and 8 inches thick (1887)
  • The Lego company patented their design of Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today (1958)
  • US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners (1865)
  • American Pro Football Association renamed “National Football League (1922)
  • By Edict of Orleans French persecution of Huguenots is suspended (1561)
  • Beverly Hills, California is incorporated (1914)
  • London’s Pall Mall is first street lit by gaslight (1807)
  • Carnegie Institute founded in Washington, D.C. (1902)
  • German King Henry IV is absolved by Holy Roman Emperor Pope Gregory VII after his penitent Walk to Canossa. (1077)

January 29:

  • First successful gasoline powered car patented by Karl Benz in Karlsruhe, Germany (1886)
  • US President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address describes “regimes that sponsor terror” an “Axis of Evil”, which includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea (2002)
  • Stephen Merritt, pastor and supporter of missionaries who taught Samuel Morris, an African convert who came to America to learn from Merritt, died (1917)
  • Henry Clay introduces Missouri Comprise Bill on slavery to US Senate (1850)
  • In a surprising announcement, John Hancock resigns as Governor of Massachusetts, allegedly due to his failing health (1785)
  • Emile Grubbe is the first doctor to use radiation treatment for breast cancer (1896)
  • US Revolutionary War: King George III died after a long bout with mental illness years after losing the American Revolution and the War of 1812 (1820)
  • The Congregational Holiness Church was formally organized, following a split the previous year with the Pentecostal Holiness Church (1921)
  • William Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet is thought to have been first performed (1595)
  • Kansas admitted to the Union as the 34th state (1861)
  • Edgar Allen Poe’s Raven first published (1845)
  • Walt Disney’s Sleeping Beauty released (1959)
  • Walt Disney starts work as an artist with KC Slide Company for $40 a week (1920)
  • John Beckley of Virginia appointed first Librarian of Congress (1802)

This Week in History 1/16 – 1/22

HistoryThis Week in History

April 16:

  • The Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty passed allowing religious freedom in Virginia and paving the way for the First Amendment (1786)
  • The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaida, and the remaining members of the Taliba (2002)
  • The 18th Amendment is ratified prohibiting the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages (1920)
  • Prohibition ratified by 3/4 of US states (1919)
  • WW2: General Eisenhower took command of Allied Invasion Force in London (1944)
  • US Revolutionary War: Continental Congress approves enlistment of free blacks (1776)
  • Vermont declares independence from New York (1777)
  • US Civil War: Virginia becomes 8th state readmitted to US after Civil War (1870)
  • French Revolution: French King Louis XVI sentenced to death by the National Convention (1793)
  • Ivan IV the Terrible crowns himself first tsar of Moscow (1547)
  • In the aftermath of Lenin’s death, Stalin and Trotsky battle for leadership until on this day, Trotsky resigns as chairman of the Russian Revolutionary Military Council (1925)
  • Great Britain established full diplomatic relations with the Vatican (1982)
  • First assembly of the League of Nations in Paris (1920)
  • US Revolutionary War: Continental Congress approves enlistment of free blacks (1776)
  • US Revolutionary War: Vermont declares independence from New York (1777)
  • Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, sworn in as Liberia’s new president, becomes Africa’s first female elected head of state (2006)
  • The first grammar of a modern language, Spanish, is presented to Queen Isabella (1492)
  • First ever flower grown in space – a zinnia aboard the International Space Station using NASA Veggie system (2016)

January 17:

  • King James Bible was commissioned to be written (1604)
  • Doomsday Clock set to five minutes to midnight in response to North Korea’s first nuclear test (2007)
  • WW2: Auschwitz concentration camp begins evacuation (1945)
  • Mexico permits Moses Austin & 300 US families to settle in Texas (1821)
  • Operation Desert Storm begins against Saddam Hussein (1991)
  • Roman Emperor Theodosius divided the empire into western and eastern portions (395 AD)
  • US President Bill Clinton faces sexual harassment charges from Paula Jones (1998)
  • First day Prohibition comes into effect in the US as a result of the 18th amendment (1920)
  • First fully automatic photographic film developing machine patented (1928)
  • Captain James Cook becomes first to cross Antarctic Circle 66° 33′ S (1773)
  • Beginning of Giovanni da Verrazzano’s voyage to find a passage to China (1524)
  • Popeye makes first appearance in comic strip Thimble Theater (1929)
  • Avalanche destroys every building in Leukerbad, Switzerland, killing 53 (1718)
  • Nine old women burnt as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland (1775)
  • Antony of Egypt, known as the first monk, died at 105 (356 AD)
  • The Edict of St. Germain officially recognized French Protestantism (1562)
  • The Baptist World Mission was incorporated in Chicago (1963)

January 18:

  • WW1: Peace Conference begins in Paris (1919)
  • Peter Deyneka, known as Peter Dynamite for his bold sermons and who preached the Gospel to Communist Russia through radio messages, was saved (1920)
  • Plans for World Trade Center announced (1964)
  • Captain James Cook stumbles over Sandwich Islands now known as Hawaiian Islands (1778)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. holiday observed in all 50 states for first time (1993)
  • San Jose California, founded (1777)
  • The first Armenian church was consecrated in the United States at Worcester, Massachusetts after Armenian Turks came to America to escape persecution (1891)
  • Edgar Allen Poe is born (1809)
  • The first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from England to Australia arrives at Botany Bay to set up a penal colony (1788)
  • US Civil War: Confederate Territory of Arizona forms (1862)
  • Taylor University was established in Fort Wayne, Indiana, under Methodist sponsorship (1846)
  • Pilgrims in Boston reported America’s first UFO sighting (1644)

January 19:

  • US Civil War: Robert E. Lee is born (1807)
  • Mel Trotter, who founded a series of missions for alcoholics, was saved and delivered from alcoholism (1897)
  • The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires, built by Thomas Edison, begins service at Roselle, New Jersey (1883)
  • First presidential news conference filmed for TV with US President Eisenhower (1955)
  • Millionaire Howard Hughes sets transcontinental air record at 7h28m25s (1937)
  • General Motors begins mass production of diesel engines (1938)
  • Coopers Inc. sells the world’s first men’s briefs in Chicago, calls it the “Jockey” (1935)

January 20:

  • WW2: At the notorious Wannsee Conference in Berlin, German Nazi officials decided on their “final solution,” which called for a mass extermination of all the Jews in Europe (1942)
  • Iran Hostage Crisis ends when Iran releases prisoners as President Reagan is inaugurated (1981)
  • Barack Obama is inaugurated as the 44th US President and the first African-American president (2009)
  • John Marshall appointed first US chief justice (1801)
  • Susanna Annesley Wesley, mother of John and Charles Wesley, was born (1669)
  • Fabian, Bishop of Rome for fourteen years, was the first martyr by Emperor Decius who determined to smash Christianity (250 AD)
  • FDR inaugurated for fourth time, the only US president to have 4 terms (1945)
  • First US Presidential Inauguration day held on Jan 20th (1937)
  • In Russia, following the Bolshevik Revolution, all church property was confiscated and all religious instruction in the schools was abolished (1918)
  • Women’s activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton becomes first woman to testify before US Congress (1869)
  • The first Parliament of England summoned other than by royal command, in this instance by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, met in Westminster Hall (1265)
  • First live US coast-to-coast inauguration address by US President Eisenhower (1953)
  • Actress Audrey Hepburn dies (1993)
  • Pineapple introduced to Hawaii (1813)
  • Clara Swain, first medical female missionary, arrived in Bareilly in Asia (1870)
  • John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as Robert Frost recites Gift Outright (1961)
  • Edward VIII succeeds British king George V after George V abdicates his thrown to marry a divorcee (1935)
  • Harry Houdini escapes from Halvemaansteeg police station in Amsterdam (1903)
  • NYC regulation makes it illegal for a woman to smoke in public (1908)
  • Alias Smith & Jones premieres on ABC TV (1971)

January 21:

  • Agnes, a thirteen year old girl was tortured and beheaded for refusing to renounce Christ (304 AD)
  • US President Jimmy Carter pardons almost all Vietnam War draft evaders (1977)
  • History’s first Anabaptist baptismal service took place in Zurich, Switzerland (1525)
  • US Civil War: Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and 4 other southern senators resign (1861)
  • French Revolution: King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris (1793)
  • Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh – One of the most publicized and controversial battles of the war begins (1968)
  • Charismatic Bible Ministries was founded in Oklahoma (1986)
  • First American novel, WH Brown’s “Power of Sympathy” is published (1789)
  • First medical publication in America, pamphlet on smallpox (1677)

January 22:

  • Postal service between New York & Boston inaugurated (1673)
  • The Fifth Street Presbyterian Church of Troy, New York, became the first church in America to be illuminated by electric lighting (1882)
  • 75% of North America is covered by snow (1982)
  • Queen Victoria dies (1901)
  • Prince William of Orange, future King William III of Britain, summons Convention Parliament to discuss ruling jointly with his wife Mary, daughter of exiled King James II (1689)
  • Our Town, Thornton Wilder’s Pulitzer-winner of small-town life in Grover’s Corners, NH, premieres (1938)
  • In St Petersburg, Russia, a large demonstration of workers led by Father Gapon, march to the Winter Palace with a petition to the Tsar; troops fire on protesters in what becomes known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ (1905)
  • US Supreme Court legalizes most abortions in Roe vs Wade decision (1973)
  • US president sets up CIA, Central Intelligence Agency (1946)