This Week in History Update

This Week in History will no longer be a feature on Word Sharpeners. Instead, a new site is starting called Today in HisStory: Today in history from a Christian Perspective. All posts for This Week in History will be available until Today in HisStory is a year old.

 

Today in HisStory

This Week in History 5/15 – 5/21

This Week in History

May 15:

  • Billy Graham launches a crusade that draws 18,000 people to Madison Square Garden (1957)
  • WW2: Birth of Women’s Army Corp (1942)
  • National Woman Suffrage Association forms in New York, founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1869)
  • Gordon Cooper is launched into space aboard Faith 7 on the longest American space mission to that date (1963)
  • President John Adams orders the federal government to pack up and leave Philadelphia and set up shop in the nation’s new capital in Washington, D.C. (1800)
  • McDonald’s opens its first restaurant in San Bernardino, California (1940)
  • Las Vegas, Nevada founded (1905)
  • WW1: The first officer’s training camp is opened in the US, as the country prepares for war (1917)
  • In an attempted coup d’état, the Japanese Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi is killed (1932)
  • Mickey Mouse made his first ever appearance in silent film Plane Crazy (1928)
  • Gigi, directed by Vincent Minnelli and starring Leslie Caron and Maurice Chevalier, premieres (1958)
  • Johannes Kepler discovers harmonics law (1618)
  • Opening of the first private mental health hospital in the United States, the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1817)
  • Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormons, ordained by John the Baptist according to Joseph Smith (1829)
  • US Department of Agriculture created (1862)
  • Pope Innocent IV issues the papal bull ad exstirpanda, which authorizes, but also limits, the torture of heretics in the Medieval Inquisition (1252)
  • Anne Boleyn & brother George, Lord Rochford, accused of adultery and incest (1536)

May 16:

  • Republican Convention in Chicago selects Abraham Lincoln as candidate (1860)
  • WW1: The Sedition Act of 1918 is passed by the U.S. Congress making criticism of the government an imprisonable offense (1918)
  • Dirk Willem, an Anabaptist, while fleeing arrest for being baptized as an adult and allowing secret church meetings in his home, stopped to rescue his pursuer when frozen ice broke beneath him, then was arrested and burned at the stake (1569)
  • Chaim Weizmann elected first president of Israel (1948)
  • WW2: First of 180,000 plus Hungarian Jews reach Auschwitz (1940)
  • Human stem cells are successfully cloned (2013)
  • By one vote, US Senate fails to impeach President Andrew Johnson (1868)
  • Supreme Court ruled bootleggers must pay income tax (1927)
  • US Congress authorizes the nickel 5 cent piece (1866)
  • First Academy Awards (1929)
  • Joan of Arc canonized a saint (1920)
  • WW2: Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto ends after 30 days of fighting (1943)
  • WW2: In Operation Chastise, No. 617 Squadron RAF begins the famous Dambusters Raid, bombing the Möhne and Eder dams in the Ruhr valley with bouncing bombs (1943)
  • George A. Hormel & Co introduces Spam (1891)

May 17:

  • Castro offers to exchange Bay of Pigs prisoners for 500 bulldozers (1961)
  • Lewis & Clark begin exploration of Louisiana Purchase (1804)
  • 24 merchants form New York Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street (1792)
  • Revised version of New Testament is published (1881)
  • Buffalo Bill Cody’s first wild west show premieres in Omaha (1883)
  • American Revolutionary War: the Continental Congress bans trade with Canada (1775)
  • John Hawkins & Richard French patent the Reaping Machine (1803)
  • John Flynn establishes  the world’s first civilian flying doctor service in the Australian Outback (1928)
  • Louis Joliet & Jacques Marquette begin exploring Mississippi (1673)
  • During the Boxer Rebellion in China, three villages within 100 miles of Peking are burned by Boxers and 60 Chinese Christians killed (1900)
  • French and Indian War: Britain declares war on France (1756)
  • The International Telegraph Union is established (1865)
  • Alaska becomes a US territory (1884)
  • Brown vs. Board of Education ends public school segregation (1954)
  • The Conservative Baptist Association of America was formally established as a breakaway movement from within the American Baptist Convention. (1947)
  • Pánfilo de Narváez departs Spain to explore Florida with 600 men, only 6 survive (1527)
  • Liberius, champion of Nicene orthodoxy, was elected as the 36th pope of the early church (352 AD)
  • Senate Watergate Committee begins its hearings (1973)

May 18:

  • John Winthrop is elected 1st Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony when Puritans are granted voting rights (1631)
  • Mount St Helen erupted in Washington State killing 60 (1980)
  • Congress approves “Lindbergh Act” making kidnapping a capital offense (1934)
  • TWA began commercial service (1934)
  • General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decreed that anyone in a political position must be a church member (1631)
  • Rhode Island enacts first law declaring slavery illegal (1652)
  • US Supreme court affirms legitimacy of racial separation in Plessy v Ferguson (1896)
  • WW1: US Congress passes Selective Service Act, authorizing the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into the war through compulsory enlistment (1917)
  • Acre, the last territory in Palestine taken by the first Crusaders, fell to invading Muslim armies (1291)
  • Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed Emperor of France by the French Senate (1804)
  • Popular evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson disappeared while on a beach outing, and turned up five weeks later claiming to have been kidnapped and held prisoner before escaping from her abductors (1925)
  • Gene Roddenberry suggests 16 names including Kirk for Star Trek Captain (1965)
  • Massachusetts rules all school-age children must attend school (1852)
  • A mass panic on Khodynka Field, Moscow, during the festivities of the coronation of Russian Tsar Nicholas II, results in the deaths of 1,389 people (1896)
  • US Supreme Court rules states could not force mentally unstable criminal defendants to take anti-psychotic drugs (1992)
  • The Church of the United Brethren in Christ was organized in Lancaster, PA (1766)
  • Beatles’ last released LP, “Let It Be” (1970)
  • “Dracula”, by Irish author Bram Stoker is published by Archibald Constable and Company in London (1897)

May 19:

  • About midday, near-total darkness descends on New England, now known to be caused by forest fires in Canada (1780)
  • US Post Office authorizes use of postcards (1898)
  • First department store opens (1848)
  • Mexican America War: Mexico gives Texas to US, ending the war (1848)
  • English colony Massachusetts Bay grants Puritans voting rights (1631)
  • Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut & New Harbor form United Colonies of New England (1643)
  • Lawrence of Arabia dies as a retired Royal Air Force mechanic living under an assumed name (1935)
  • England is declared a Commonwealth by an act of the Long Parliament making England a republic for the next 11 years (1649)
  • King George II of England grants the Ohio Company a charter of several hundred thousand acres of land around the forks of the Ohio River (1749)
  • The complete Old and New Testament English Revised Version (EV or ERV) of the Bible was first published (1885)
  • US Homestead Act becomes law – providing cheap land for settlement of the American West (1862)
  • Ann of Boleyn, 2nd wife of English King Henry VIII, is beheaded at the Tower of London on charges of adultery, incest and treason (1536)
  • England’s King Charles II approved a bill requiring all ministers to assent publicly to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (1662)
  • First mass production of shoes (1885)
  • The musical Godspell, based on the book of Matthew, first opened (1971)
  • Alcuin of York, Middle Ages theologian who promoted education, died (804 AD)

May 20: 

  • American aviator Charles A. Lindbergh takes off on the world’s first solo, nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1927)
  • Jesse Overholtzer founded Child Evangelism Fellowship in Chicago (1937)
  • US Homestead Act becomes law which provides cheap land for the settlement of the American West (1862)
  • US Civil War: Kentucky proclaims its neutrality in Civil War (1861)
  • US Civil War: North Carolina becomes 11th & last state to secede from Union (1861)
  • Shakespeare’s Sonnets are first published in London, perhaps illicitly, by the publisher Thomas Thorpe (1609)
  • Shoes were made for both right & left feet (1310)
  • Ameilia Earhart becomes first woman to fly solo across Atlantic (1932)
  • George Gordon and his wife, missionaries to Erromanga island, were martyred by the chief of the island (1861)
  • The first public display of Thomas Edison’s prototype kinetoscope to members of the National Federation of Women’s Club (1891)
  • Hubble Space Telescope sends its first photographs from space (1990)
  • Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive patent for blue jeans (1873)
  • Homestead Act provides cheap land for settlement of West (1862)
  • Columbia University in New York City was chartered as King’s College under sponsorship of the Episcopal Church (1754)
  • Death of John Eliot, colonial missionary to the American Indians of Maryland (1690)
  • Shakespeare’s Sonnets are first published in London (1609)
  • First Christian ecumenical council opens at Nicaea, Asia Minor (320 AD)
  • Columbia University in New York City was chartered as King’s College (1754)
  • Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrives at Calicut, India becoming the first European to reach India by sea (1498)

May 21:

  • Lindbergh lands in Paris ending first solo flight across Atlantic (1927)
  • Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission, was born (1821)
  • Charles Wesley credits this as the day he received the witness of the Holy Spirit that he was saved (1738)
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition begins (1804)
  • US Civil War: Richmond, Va, is designated Confederate Capital (1861)
  • Lawrence, Kansas is captured and sacked by pro-slavery forces (1856)
  • American Red Cross founded by Clara Barton (1881)
  • First Democratic Party Convention (1832)
  • Pierre Poiret, founder of the Pietistic movement which attempted to give Christian life more feeling and make it less formal, died (1719)
  • First bicycles, swift walkers, in US introduced in New York City (1819)
  • Connecticut enacts first speed-limit law of 12 miles per hour (1901)
  • WW2: Nazis kill “unfit” people in East Prussia (1940)
  • Mount Unzen on Japan’s Shimabara Peninsula, erupts creating a tsumasi, killing about 15,000; Japan’s deadliest volcanic eruption (1792)
  • The General Assembly of Geneva, Switzerland officially embraced Protestantism by accepting the evangelical faith of the Swiss reformers (1536)
  • Stanislav Petrov awarded World Citizen Award for averting a potential nuclear war in 1983 after correctly guessing Russian early warning system at fault (2004)
  • All My Children star Susan Lucci finally wins a Daytime Emmy after being nominated 19 times, the longest period of unsuccessful nominations in television history (1999)

The History of Spying in the USA

by Tamera Lynn Kraft

My new novel, Alice’s Notions, has snippets about spies and the Cold War in it, so I had to research a little about spying in the USA. The United States has been in the spy business since before it became a nation. It all began with Nathan Hale, America’s first spy. Now there are many spy organizations in the United States government with the CIA being the most well known.

America’s First Spy: Nathan Hale is considered America’s first spy. He wasn’t really the first spy, but he was the first to be executed as a spy. He volunteered for a dangerous mission into New York City to spy upon the British. Unfortunately he was caught and hanged. Reportedly his last words were, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

Revolutionary Spies: Benjamin Franklin and Paul Revere are amoung the most well-known spies of the Revolutionary War, but there were many spy rings. The biggest was the Culpepper Spy Ring in New York. Major Benjamin Tallmadge recruited Caleb Brewster and Abraham Woodhull (code name Samuel Culpepper) to gather intelligence on the British. Historians still don’t know the identity of some of the spies in that ring, only their code names.  One piece of intellegence the Culpepper Ring gathered was the betrayal of Benedict Arnold and his secret meeting with John Andre.

Washington’s Secret Service: George Washington, our first president understood the importance of intelligence gathering. One of his first acts as president was to work with the Congress to establish the Secret Service which comprised 10% of the federal budget. A few years later, Thomas Jefferson used the Secret Service to overthrow the government in a small North African country to stop Barbary pirate from raiding US ships. Madison used spies to influence the Spanish to relinquish Florida. Congress tried to oversee the secret fund, President Polk insisted that emergencies require oversight to be the prerogative of the president.

Civil War: During the Civil War, both Union and Confederate armies were involved in spying. They used the first spy satellites, hot air balloons, to record movements of the enemy troops. Neither side had an organized intelligence gathering organization run by their governments. The Union contracted

Allen Pinkerton and Lafayette Baker. The South had many individuals involved in spying including three infamous women: Rose Greenhow, Belle Boyd, and Nancy Hart.

First Formal Spy Agencies: The first formal US spy agencies were formed in the 1880s. They were the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Army’s Military Intelligence Division. They were involved heavily in the Spanish-American War in 1898. The Secret Service was still in operation but was in charge of domestic counter-intelligence only. The Secret Service broke up a Spanish spy ring in Montreal during the war.

World War I: US spy agencies had suffered greatly from budget cuts until World War I when the National Security Agency was established as a department of the US Army. The Secret Service, the New York Police Department, and
military counterintelligence also were involved in intellegence and stopped German spying inside the United States. Another significant organization to be created during the First World War was the Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation (later called FBI) which enforced the first US Espionage Act of 1917.

World War II: As the Nazis rose in power, the US put it’s energy into code breaking and intellegence gathering on Germany and Japan. The Black Chamber Organization was formed to do that.  As the war drew closer, President Roosevelt established a new spy organization in 1941 called the Office of the Coordinator of Information to organize the activities of the various spy organizations. After the failure to detect the Japanese plot to bomb Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt dissolved the OCI and established the wartime organization, the Office of Strategic Services. The OSS and FBI worked closely with the Armed Services spy organizations to do intelligence gathering throughout the war.

Cold War: The OSS was abolished when the war ended in October, 1945 by President Truman, but it soon became obvious another central intelligence organization was needed. In January, 1946, Truman and others planned out the new spy organization called the Central Intelligence Group. This group had access and oversight of all foreign intelligence gathering and spying. The CIG also functioned under the direction of a National Intelligence
Authority, composed of a presidential representative and the secretaries
of State, War, and the Navy. In 1947, the National Security Act disbanded the CIG and the National Intelligence Authority and replaced them with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency forming our modern day spying organizations.

Alice’s Notions

In this quaint mountain town, things aren’t always what they seem.

World War 2 widow Alice Brighton returns to the safety of her home town to open a fabric shop. She decides to start a barn quilt tour to bring business to the shop and the town, but what she doesn’t know is sinister forces are using the tour for their own nefarious reasons

Between her mysterious landlord, her German immigrant employee, her neighbors who are acting strange, and a dreamboat security expert who is trying to romance her, Alice doesn’t know who she can trust.

 You can buy Alice’s Notions in eBook or paperback at this link.

 

This Week in History 5/8 – 5/14

This Week in History

May 8:

  • VE Day, Victory in Europe Day celebrates defeat of Nazis when Germany signed an unconditional surrender (1945)
  • US Civil War: Richmond, Virginia is named the capital of the Confederacy (1861)
  • Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi River (1541)
  • World Health Organization announced smallpox had been eradicated (1980)
  • Jacob’s Pharmacy in Atlanta sells first Coca-Cola which contained cocaine (1886)
  • Ernest Rutherford publishes his discovery of two different kinds of radiation – Alpha and Beta Particles (1899)
  • English parliament declares Charles Stuart to be King Charles II of England (1660)
  • First installment of Hans Christian Andersen “Fairy Tales” published by C. A. Reitzel in Copenhagen, Denmark (1835)
  • John Brown holds antislavery convention (1858)
  • Parliament of Worms installs edict against Martin Luther (1521)
  • The American Bible Society was organized (1816)
  • US establishes the military draft (1792)
  • Mohandas Gandhi begins a 21-day fast in protest against British oppression in India (1933)
  • US Mexican War: first major battle of Mexican War fought at Palo Alto, Texas (1846)
  • Sarah Ann Henley survives 76 mile jump from Clifton Bridge in Avon, England (1885)
  • Southern Baptist Convention was formed by 300 representatives from Baptist churches in Georgia, Virginia and South Carolina (1845)
  • Jacobus Arminius, who wrote about the doctrine of Arianism, was appointed Professor of Theology at Leiden University in Amsterdam (1603)
  • China cedes Taiwan to Japan under Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895)
  • First American flag seamstress Betsy Ross weds John Claypoole (1783)

May 9:

  • US President Woodrow Wilson issues a proclamation creating Mother’s Day (1914)
  • US Revolutionary War: First newspaper cartoon in America-divided snake “Join or Die” (1754)
  • 17th amendment provides for election of senators by popular vote (1913)
  • Vietnam War: Reporter breaks the news of secret bombing in Cambodia (1969)
  • British parliament accepts abolition of slave trade (1788)
  • The International Astronomical Union formally adopt Annie Jump Cannon’s stellar classification system which, with only minor changes, is still used today (1922)
  • Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show opens in London (1887)
  • WW1: Allies launch dual offensive on Western Front (1915)
  • House votes to initiate impeachment proceedings against US President Nixon (1974)
  • WW2: The Channel Islands are formally liberated by the British (1945)
  • WW2: The Soviet Union marks Victory Day (1945)
  • US Civil War: US Naval Academy relocated from Annapolis, Maryland to Newport, Rhode Island (1862)
  • US becomes the first country to legalize the birth control pill (1960)
  • First horseless carriage show in London featured 10 models (1896)
  • WW2: British intelligence breaks German spy codes after capturing Enigma machines aboard the weather ship Muenchen (1941)
  • WW2: Czechoslovakia liberated from Nazi occupation (1945)
  • The steam locomotive City of Truro becomes the first steam engine to exceed 100 mph (1904)
  • Lawn mower patented (1899)
  • Reno, Nevada is founded (1868)
  • Cornerstone for Hebrew University, Jerusalem laid (1925)
  • A financial panic begins in the US following the struggle between two groups to control the railroads between the Great Lakes and the Pacific (1901)
  • Ronald Hubbard publishes Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, which launches the religion of Scientology (1950)
  • US Civil War: Battle of Dalton, Georgia (1864)
  • The first Australian Parliament opens in Melbourne (1901)
  • WW2: 5th German Pantser army surrenders in Tunisia (1943)
  • Vietnam War: 100,000s demonstrate against Vietnam War in reaction to 4 rioters killed at Kent State (1970)
  • Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo starring Jimmy Stewart and Kim Novak, is released (1958)
  • Captain Blood attempts to steal Crown Jewels (1671)
  • Declaration of Independence of Romania (1877)
  • WW2: Hermann Goering is captured by the United States Army (1945)
  • Treaty of Windsor between Portugal and England, the oldest diplomatic alliance in the world which is still in force (1386)

May 10:

  • US Revolutionary War: 2nd Continental Congress in Philadelphia names George Washington supreme commander (1775)
  • First Mother’s Day observed (1908)
  • US Revolutionary War: 2nd Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and issues paper currency for first time (1775)
  • First Barbary War: The Barbary pirates of Tripoli declare war on the United States of America in first US foreign war (1801)
  • Transcontinental railroad completed (1869)
  • Apollo 10 transmits first color pictures of Earth from space (1969)
  • First US Navy ship, the “United States,” is launched (1797)
  • Victoria Woodhull becomes first woman nominated for US presidency by Equal Rights Party at Apollo Hall, NYC (1872)
  • WW2: The first German bombs of the war fall on England at Chilham and Petham, in Kent (1940)
  • WW2: Nazis stage public book burnings in Germany (1933)
  • US Revolutionary War: Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold lead a successful attack on Fort Ticonderoga in upstate New York (1775)
  • US President Hayes has first phone installed in White House (1877)
  • First Barbary War: The Barbary pirates of Tripoli declare war on the United States of America, first US foreign war (1801)
  • J. Edgar Hoover becomes director of FBI (1924)
  • Halley’s Comet closest approach to Earth (1910)
  • Benjamin Franklin tests the lightning conductor with his his kite-flying experiment (1752)
  • US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union Army (1865)
  • A hand grenade which was thrown by Vladimir Arutyunian lands about 65 feet from U.S. President George W. Bush while he was giving a speech, but it malfunctions and does not detonate (2005)
  • WW2: Churchill becomes Prime Minister of England as Germany invades Holland and Belgium (1940)
  • Vietnam War: US troops begin attack on Hill 937, Hamburger Hill (1969)
  • Bacon’s Rebellion begins, frontiersmen vs Virginia government (1676)
  • Scottish Protestants under John Knox uprising against Queen Mary (1559)
  • Columbus discovers Cayman Islands (1503)
  • John Johnson, a free African American, is granted 550 acres in Northampton, Virginia (1652)
  • US Civil War: Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson dies (1863)
  • US atomic sub USS Triton completes first submerged circumnavigation of the globe (1960)
  • Nelson Mandela sworn in as South Africa’s first black president (1994)
  • Victoria Woodhull becomes first woman nominated for US presidency by Equal Rights Party (1872)

May 11:

  • American Bible Society founded (1816)
  • First hospital founded, Pennsylvania Hospital, in the 13 Colonies in America (1751)
  • In New York City, more than 170 countries decide to extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty indefinitely and without conditions (1995)
  • Ellis Island added to Statue of Liberty National monument (1965)
  • Waltz introduced into English ballrooms (1812)
  • BF Goodrich announced the development of tubeless tire in Akron, Ohio (1947)
  • The General Court of Massachusetts repealed two laws: one forbidding Christmas, and the second mandating capital punishment for Quakers (1682)
  • By a vote of 37-12, Israel becomes 59th member of UN (1949)
  • Waltz introduced into English ballrooms which some observers considered disgusting and immoral (1812)
  • Mercedes-Benz is formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging the two companies (1924)
  • Minnesota admitted as 32nd US state (1958)
  • US Civil War: Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart is mortally wounded at Yellow Tavern (1864)
  • British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is murdered (1812)
  • Constantinople becomes capital of Roman Empire (330 AD)
  • In Australia, William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth lead an expedition westwards from Sydney opening up inland Australia for continued expansion (1813)
  • While visiting Japan, Prince Nicholas, later Tsar Nicholas II, survives an assassination attempt in what becomes known as the Otsu Scandal (1891)
  • Siam renames itself Thailand (1949)
  • Jews are expelled from Stria, Austria (1421)

May 12:

  • WW2: Konrad Zuse presents the Z3, the world’s first working programmable, fully automatic computer, in Berlin (1941)
  • William Wilberforce makes his first major speech on abolition in UK House of Commons (1789)
  • WW2: Nazi U-boat sinks American cargo ship at mouth of Mississippi River (1942)
  • US Revolutionary War:Americans suffer worst defeat of revolution at Charleston (1980)
  • Wireless Radio Broadcasting is patented by Nathan B Stubblefield (1908)
  • US Civil War: Last land action of Civil war at Palmito Ranch, Texas (1865)
  • Toilet that flushes itself at regular intervals is patented (1792)
  • WW2: Nazi blitzkrieg conquest of France began by crossing Muese River (1940)
  • US Civil War: Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia (1864)
  • George VI crowned King of England after Edward VIII abdicated his throne (1937)
  • Body of kidnapped son of Charles Lindbergh is found in Hopewell, New Jersey (1932)
  • WW2: 1,500 Jews gassed in Auschwitz (1942)
  • WW2: Benito Mussolini ends women’s rights in Italy (1928)
  • Wenchuan earthquake, measuring 7.8 in magnitude occurs in Sichuan, China, killing over 87,000, injuring 374,643 and leaving homeless between 4.8 million and 11 million people (2008)
  • English barons serve ultimatum on King John leading to Magna Carta (1215)
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration & Agricultural Adjustment Administration form to help the needy & farmers (1933)
  • US Revolutionary War: Society of St Tammany is formed by Revolutionary War soldiers which later becomes an infamous group of NYC political bosses (1789)
  • Louisiana legalized prize fighting (1890)
  • Opium laws enforced (1928)
  • Fifty-four Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France (1310)

May 13:

  • Jamestown settlers arrive and establish the first permanent English colony in America (1607)
  • Great Dustbowl Storm sweeps across US prairies (1934)
  • President Polk declares war on Mexico (1946)
  • Approximately 2,000 students begin hunger strike in Tienanmen Square, China (1989)
  • US Civil War: Private John Jefferson Williams of B Company, 34th Regiment Indiana Infantry is last man killed (1865)
  • WW1: US Secretary of State Bryan sends a note to Germany demanding that Germany disavow the attacks on the Lusitania and make immediate reparations (1915)
  • WW2: Winston Churchill says I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears & sweat (1940)
  • US Civil War: Queen Victoria announces Britain’s position of neutrality (1861)
  • WW2: US sentences 58 camp guards of Nazi Mauthausen concentration camp to death (1946)
  • US Federal education funding is denied to 12 school districts in the South because of violations of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (1966)
  • In Tallahassee, Florida, the State legislature passed a bill requiring daily Bible readings in all public schools (1925)
  • A statute enacted in Rhode Island offered freemanship with no specifically Christian requirements which enfranchised Jews (1665)
  • Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca shot and seriously wounded Pope John Paul II in an assassination attempt (1981)
  • Three astronauts simultaneous walked in space for the first time (1992)
  • Republic of Ecuador is founded (1830)
  • Christopher Columbus’s flagship, the Santa María, is discovered off the northern coast of Haiti (2014)
  • Near Fatima, Portugal, three shepherd children reported that Mary, the mother of Jesus, had appeared to them (1917)
  • Arthur Phillip sets sails with 11 ships of criminals to Botany Bay, Australia (1787)
  • Cardinal Richelieu of France reputedly creates the table knife (1637)
  • Mary Queen of Scots is defeated at battle of Langside (1568)
  • Republic of Ecuador is founded, with Juan Jose Flores as president (1830)

May 14:

  • Traditional date for Ascension of Christ (33 AD)
  • Delegates gather in Philadelphia to draw up US constitution (1787)
  • First Anglican service in the New World at Jamestown (1607)
  • State of Israel formally proclaimed as Star of David flag rises in Jerusalem for the first time in modern history (1948)
  • Lewis and Clark exhibition begins (1804)
  • Warsaw Pact is signed by the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania (1955)
  • US grants Israel de facto recognition (1948)
  • First passenger flight in an airplane (1908)
  • English country doctor Edward Jenner administers the first inoculation against smallpox, using cowpox pus, in Berkeley, Gloucestershire (1796)
  • Vaseline is granted a patent (1878)
  • US President Harry Truman signs bill establishing a rocket test range at Cape Canaveral (1949)
  • Lina Medina becomes the world’s youngest confirmed mother in medical history at the age of five (1939)
  • WW2:Gen Rommel, Speidel & Von Stulpnagel attempt to assassinate Hitler (1944)
  • Gail Borden, land surveyor, newspaper publisher, and inventor, patents his process for condensed milk (1853)

This Week in History 5/1 – 5/7

This Week in History

May 1:

  • Empire State Building dedicated (1931)
  • Back to the Bible aired for the first time on radio (1939)
  • US Civil War: Atlanta campaign begins (1864)
  • Pulitzer prize awarded to Harper Lee for her novel To Kill a Mockingbird (1961)
  • First BASIC program runs on a computer (1964)
  • Radio Shack releases Model III TRSDOS 1.3, Tandy operating system for computers (1981)
  • Boulder Dam completed (1935)
  • General Mills introduces Cheerios (1941)
  • US Civil War: Confederate congress passed resolution to kill black soldiers (1863)
  • WW2: Food rationing begins in US (1943)
  • US Civil War: Reconstruction of South begins with black voter registration (1866)
  • North Korea proclaims itself Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948)
  • Publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, and formal start date of plant taxonomy adopted by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1753)
  • First emigrant wagon train leaves Independence, Missouri, for California (1841)
  • Mr Potato Head introduced (1952)
  • First American, James Whittaker, conquers Mount Everest (1963)
  • North Korea proclaims itself Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948)
  • WW2: The 1940 Olympics are cancelled (1940)
  • Supernova observed by Chinese & Egyptians in constellation Lupus (1006)
  • Batman premieres in comic book (1939)
  • TWA introduces tourist class (1952)
  • American Equal Rights Association forms (1866)
  • TWA introduces tourist class (1961)
  • Kingdom of England recognizes the Kingdom of Scotland as an independent state (1328)
  • Acts of Union comes into force, uniting England and Scotland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain (1707)
  • Mozart’s opera “Marriage of Figaro” premieres in Vienna (1786)

May 2:

  • WWII: Battle of Berlin ends as Soviet army takes Berlin and General Weidling surrenders (1945)
  • US Civil War: US President Andrew Johnson offers $100,000 reward for capture of Jefferson Davis (1865)
  • J. Edgar Hoover, FBI director for almost 5 decades, dies (1972)
  • Territory of Oklahoma created (1890)
  • US president Wilson signs Harrison Drug Act (1916)
  • US Civil War: Stonewall Jackson attacks Chancellorsville, wounded by his own men (1863)
  • U.S. Supreme Court’s “Buck v. Bell”, permits forced sterilizations of various “unfits” by states’ authorities where such surgeries are practiced for eugenic reasons (1927)
  • Anne Boleyn is arrested and taken to the Tower of London (1536)
  • King Charles II gives royal charter to the Hudson’s Bay Company (1670)
  • The General Conference of the Methodist Church, held in Minneapolis, demanded abolishment of racial segregation in all Methodist churches (1956)
  • Martin Luther became a priest (1507)
  • Missionary Hans Egede sailed to Greenland (1721)
  • Good Housekeeping magazine is first published (1885)
  • Osama Bin Laden is killed by United States special forces (2011)
  • Birth of William Taylor, evangelist, circuit rider, and missionary (1821)
  • Former VP Spiro Agnew disbarred (1974)
  • Cyclone Nargis makes landfall in Myanmar killing over 130,000 people and leaving millions of people homeless (2008)
  • Dr Kevorkian found innocent on assisting suicides (1994)
  • US President Bill Clinton announces that accurate GPS access would no longer be restricted to the United States military (2000)

May 3:

  • Great Awakening revivalist George Whitefield first arrived in America (1738)
  • Sixteen year old Charles H. Spurgeon made his public profession of faith in Jesus Christ (1850)
  • WW2: German ship “Cap Arcona” laden with prisoners sunk by Royal Air Force in East Sea, 5,800 killed – one of largest maritime losses of life (1945)
  • Jews flee Spain to avoid persecution (1455)
  • A Massachusetts law was enacted requiring church doors to be locked during the worship service because too many people were leaving before the long sermons were completed (1675)
  • Margaret Mitchell wins Pulitzer Prize for Gone With the Wind (1937)
  • First African American lawyer, Macon B Allen, admitted to the bar (1845)
  • Royal charter granted to Connecticut (1662)
  • Washington, D.C. is incorporated as a city (1802)
  • Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is slammed by an F5 tornado killing forty-two people, injuring 665, and causing $1 billion in damage (1999)
  • Most of San Francisco destroyed by fire, 30 die (1851)
  • West Virginia imposes first state sales tax (1921)
  • WW2: Japanese atrocities in Jinan, China (1928)
  • First unsolicited bulk commercial e-mail “spam” is sent by a Digital Equipment Corporation marketing representative (1978)
  • The Constitution of May 3, the first modern constitution in Europe, is proclaimed by the Sejm of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1791)

May 4:

  • After an unknown shot is fired, National Guard opens fire killing four rioters at Kent State University in Ohio (1970)
  • The Moravians in Pennsylvania established the Moravian Women’s Seminary at Bethlehem, the first educational institution of its kind established in colonial America (1746)
  • United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a New York statute exempting church-owned property from taxation (1970)
  • US Revolutionary War: Rhode Island declares independence from England (1776)
  • During Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago, Illinois, a bomb is thrown at a squad of policemen attempting to break up a labor rally (1886)
  • Pulitzer Prize for Literature awarded to Ernest Hemingway for The Old Man & The Sea (1953)
  • Margaret Thatcher becomes the first woman to be elected Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1979)
  • Construction begins by the United States on the Panama Canal (1904)
  • First Grammy Awards with Perry Como & Ella Fitzgerald winning (1959)
  • American Academy of Arts & Science founded in Boston (1778)
  • Michigan ends death penalty (1846)
  • “Unabomber” Ted Kaczynski sentenced to four life sentences plus 30 years (1998)
  • Al Capone enters Atlanta Penitentiary convicted of income tax evasion (1932)
  • Wars of the Roses: Battle of Tewkesbury – final battle between Lancaster and York sees the Prince of Wales, Edward of Westminster killed and King Edward IV restored to his crown thus extinguishing the Lancastrian of Plantagenet line (1471)
  • The Don’t Make A Wave Committee, a fledgling environmental organization founded in Canada in 1971, officially changes its name to “Greenpeace Foundation” (1972)

May 5:

  • Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. becomes first American in Space (1961)
  • Haile Selassie, missionary to Ethiopia, forced to leave the church of 48 converts on May 5, 1936, returned exactly 5 years later to find 10,000 converts (1941)
  • WW2: Admiral Karl Dönitz, leader of Germany after Hitler’s death, orders all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases (1945)
  • WW2: Six killed in Oregon by Japanese bomb (1945)
  • Vietnam War: First large-scale US Army ground units arrive in South Vietnam (1965)
  • West Germany is granted full sovereignty by its three occupying powers (1955)
  • Music Hall (Carnegie Hall) opens in New York, Tchaikovsky is guest conductor (1891)
  • Siege at Iranian Embassy in London ends as British SAS and police storm the building (1980)
  • High school biology teacher John T. Scopes  was arrested for teaching the theory of evolution in his Dayton, Tennessee classroom (1925)
  • During British Civil War, King Charles I surrenders in Scotland (1646)
  • The Bay View Tragedy occurs, as National guardsmen fire upon a crowd of unarmed mill worker protestors on strike in Milwaukee, Wisconsin killing seven (1886)
  • First US train robbery in North Bend, Ohio (1865)
  • Gandhi freed from prison (1944)
  • Eugene Antonio Marino becomes first black Roman Catholic archbishop in the U.S. (1988)
  • US Civil War: Battle between Confederate & Union ships at mouth of Roanoke (1864)
  • First modern perfume, Chanel No. 5 released (1941)

May 6:

  • King Alfred the Great of Wessex, the English king to survive Viking attacks, wins Battle of Ethandun. After Viking invaders surrender, King Alfred converts them to Christianity and baptizes them instead of killing them and makes a peace treaty with the Danes. He became known as Alfred the Great, the first king of England (878 AD)
  • US Civil War: Jefferson Davis approves a bill declaring War between the Union & the Confederacy (1861)
  • Dutch colonist Peter Minuit buys Manhattan Island from local Indians for 60 guilders worth of trinkets (1626)
  • US President Eisenhower signs Civil Rights Act of 1960 (1960)
  • WW2: All U.S. troops in the Philippines surrender unconditionally to the Japanese (1942)
  • At California’s March Field, Bob Hope performs his first USO show (1941)
  • King Henry VIII orders bible be placed in every church in England (1541)
  • US Civil War: Arkansas & Tennessee becomes 9th & 10th states to secede from US (1861)
  • US Civil war: General Sherman begins advance to Atlanta Georgia (1864)
  • Hindenburg disaster (1937)
  • WW2: Axis Sally delivers her last propaganda broadcast to Allied troops (1945)
  • Joseph Stalin became Premier of Russia (1941)
  • John Deere makes first steel plow (1833)
  • Exposition Universelle, World Fair, opens in Paris with the completed Eiffel Tower (1889)
  • US Civil War: Battle of Wilderness – Confederate General Longstreet seriously injured (1864)
  • US Congress ceases Chinese immigration (1882)
  • Mormon Church renounces polygamy (1890)
  • John Steinbeck wins Pulitzer Prize for Grapes of Wrath (1940)
  • Roger Bannister becomes first man to run 4 minute mile (1954)
  • During a trip to Syria, Pope John Paul II becomes the first pope to enter a mosque (2001)

May 7:

  • WW2: Unconditional German surrender to the Allies signed by General Alfred Jodl at Rheims (1945)
  • WW1: RMS Lusitania sunk by German submarine off the southern coast of Ireland, 1198 lives lost (1915)
  • First US Presidential inaugural ball (1789)
  • US Congress establishes Mother’s Day (1914)
  • The concept of the integrated circuit, the basis for all modern computers, is first published by Geoffrey Dummer (1952)
  • WW2: Nazi decree orders all Jewish pregnant women of Kovno Ghetto executed (1942)
  • WW2: SS open fire on crowd in Amsterdam, killing 22 (1945)
  • George Eastman patents Kodak Box Camera (1888)
  • Columbia University approves plans for awarding the Pulitzer Prize in several categories, after established by Joseph Pulitzer (1912)
  • Russian scientist Alexander Stepanovich Popov demonstrates to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society his invention – the world’s first radio receiver (1895)
  • WW1: A draft of the Versailles Treaty is shown to Germans (1919)
  • William Penn began monthly meetings for blacks advocating emancipation (1700)
  • Dr. H. H. Holmes, one of America’s first well-known serial killers, is hanged (1896)
  • English siege of Orleans broken by Joan of Arc and the French army (1429)
  • Louis XIV of France inaugurates The Palace of Versailles (1664)
  • Captain Robert Gray discovers Grays Harbor, Washington (1792)
  • Indiana Territory organized (1800)
  • Glenn Miller records Chattanooga Choo Choo for RCA (1941)
  • American Medical Association organizes (1847)
  • 1,200 Jews of Toledo Spain killed by Count Henry of Trastamara (1355)
  • Forty thousand mercenaries, hired by Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, sacked the city of Rome, destroying two-thirds of the houses, butchering clergy and laity alike, and forcing Clement VII to flee disguised as a gardener (1527)
  • The city of New Orleans was founded by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienvill (1718)
  • Isaack B Fubine of Savoy, in The Hague, patents macaroni (1660)
  • The tomb of Herod the Great is discovered (2007)

This Week in History 4/24 – 4/30

HistoryThis Week in History

  • April 24:
  • In deciding the legal case “United States v. Ballard,” the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the general principle that “the truth of religious claims is not for secular authority to determine.” (1944)
  • Massacre of Armenian Christians by Turks starts on Armenian Martyrs Day (1915)
  • Augustine of Hippo, early Christian theologian, was baptized (387 AD)
  • Boston News-Letter, first successful newspaper in US, forms (1704)
  • The Greeks enter Troy using the Trojan Horse (1147 BC)
  • US Civil War: Last federal occupying troops withdraw from the South in New Orleans (1877)
  • US President Harry Truman denies there are communists in the US government (1950)
  • Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland says in a news conference that the enemy had “gained support in the United States that gives him hope that he can win politically that which he cannot win militarily.” (1967)
  • Easter Rising of Irish republicans against British occupation begins on Easter in Dublin (1916)
  • Volcano Mt Vesuvius erupts (1872)
  • Halley’s Comet sparks English monk to predict country will be destroyed (1066)
  • Jacob Evert & George Dulty patent first soda fountain (1833)
  • Spanish-American War: Spain delares war after rejecting US ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba (1898)
  • Double Indemnity starring Fred MacMurray and Barbara Stanwyck is released (1944)
  • National Medical Association of Black physicians organizes (1884)
  • The Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York City is opened (1913)
  • Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire (1877)
  • Jordan formally annexes the West Bank (1950)

April 25:

  • Library of Congress established (1800)
  • German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller first to use the name America on his world map Universalis Cosmographia (1507)
  • 7.8-magnitude earthquake near Kathmandu in Nepal, killing 8000, leaving over 100,000 homeless, destroying many historic sites (2015)
  • WW2: Red army completely surrounds Berlin (1945)
  • Spanish-American War: The United States declares state of war on Spain effective from 21st April. (1898)
  • Mexican-American War: The Thornton Affair conflict begins over the disputed border of Texas triggering the war (1846)
  • US Civil War: Capture of New Orleans by the Union under Flag Officer Farragut (1862)
  • Captured in 1967, the Sinai Peninsula was returned by Israel to Egypt as part of the 1979 Camp David Accord (1982)
  • The Augsburg Confession, the first summary of the Lutheran faith, was read publicly at the Diet of Worms (1530)
  • Robert Noyce patents integrated circuit (1961)
  • Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe (1719)
  • Guillotine first used in France, executes highwayman Nicolas Pelletier (1792)
  • Charles Fremantle arrives in HMS Challenger off the coast of modern-day Western Australia (1829)
  • English Convention Parliament meets and votes to restore Charles II (1660)
  • Birth of John Keble, English clergyman and poet credited with founding the Oxford Movement (1792)
  • Patent granted for thimble (1684)
  • Sigmund Freud opens practice at Rathausstrasse 7, Vienna (1886)
  • Ground broken for Suez Canal (1859)

April 26:

  • World’s worst nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant near Kiev in Ukraine (1986)
  • First permanent English colony in American lands at Cape Henry, Virginia (1607)
  • Nationwide test of Salk’s anti-polio vaccine begins (1954)
  • John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Lincoln, is killed (1865)
  • Nationwide test of Salk anti-polio vaccine begins (1954)
  • Minnesota observed a statewide day of prayer asking for deliverance from a plague of grasshoppers ravishing their farms; the plague ended soon after (1877)
  • WW2: Marshal Henri Philippe Petain, leader of France’s Vichy collaborationist regime during WW II, arrested for treason (1945)
  • US Civil War: Confederate Gen J E Johnston surrenders Army of Tenn, at Durham NC (1865)
  • Copernicus makes his first observations of Saturn (1514)
  • Alexander Duff, Scottish missionary to India, was born (1806)
  • Harlow Shapley and Heber D. Curtis hold “great debate” on the nature of nebulae, galaxies and size of the universe at US National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. (1920)
  • Dan Sickles is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity, first time this defense used successfully in the US (1859)

April 27:

  • The universe is created according to German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler (4977 BC)
  • US Revolutionary War: British Parliament passes the Tea Act (1773)
  • US Civil War: West Virginia secedes from Virginia after Virginia secedes from Union (1861)
  • US Civil War: Steamboat “SS Sultana” explodes in the Mississippi River, killing up to 1,800 of the 2,427 passengers in the greatest maritime disaster in United States history (1865)
  • The last Canadian missionary leaves the People’s Republic of China (1959)
  • English poet John Milton sold the copyright to his religious epic Paradise Lost for ten English pounds (1667)
  • The deadliest day of the 2011 Super outbreak of tornadoes, the largest tornado outbreak, in United States history (2011)
  • Blind and impoverished, John Milton sells the copyright of Paradise Lost for £10 (1667)
  • Soviet authorities order the evacuation of the city of Pripyat, population 50,000, one day after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986)
  • Death of Moravian missionary Peter Bohler who led John Wesley to Christ (1775)
  • Construction begins on the Freedom Tower for the new World Trade Center in New York City (2006)
  • US Civil War: US President Abraham Lincoln suspends writ of habeas corpus (1861)
  • Indian passive resistance is suspended when General J.C. Smuts enters into negotiations with Mahatma Gandhi (1911)
  • Modern state of Israel was officially recognized by the British government (1950)
  • Apollo 16 returns safely to Earth (1972)
  • Geneva’s first Protestant catechism was published (1537)
  • WW2: The Völkischer Beobachter, the newspaper of the Nazi Party, ceases publication (1945)

April 28:

  • Using the ISO 8601 standard Year Zero definition for the Gregorian calendar preceded by the Julian calendar, the one billionth minute since the start of January 1, Year Zero occurs at 10:40 AM on this date (1902)
  • US President Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Commander of NATO (1952)
  • Mutiny on the HMS Bounty (1789)
  • WW2: Mussolini, Italian dictator during the war, executed (1945)
  • Al Lewis, aviation missionary, was killed in a plane crash (1955)
  • Virginia Governor John Harvey accused of treason & removed from office (1635)
  • Maryland becomes seventh state to ratify US constitution (1788)
  • First commercial flight across Pacific operated by Pan Am (1937)
  • WW2: World War II titled so as result of Gallup Poll (1942)
  • The 100th General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church passed a resolution declaring that sexual relations within marriage without the intention of procreation were not sinful (1960)
  • British Captain James Cook, aboard the Endeavour, lands at Botany Bay in Australia (1770)
  • Charles de Gaulle resigns as president of France (1969)
  • 181 die in coal mine collapse at Eccles, West Virginia (1914)
  • 119 die in Benwood, West Virginia coal mine disaster (1924)

April 29:

  • First Anglican worship service in America at Jamestown (1607)
  • Vietnam War: In Operation Frequent Wind, U.S. begins to evacuate US citizens from Saigon prior to an expected North Vietnamese takeover ending US involvement in the war (1975)
  • Vietnam War: Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge are the last two United States servicemen killed in Vietnam during the war (1975)
  • World War II monument opens in Washington D.C. (2004)
  • US Civil War: Maryland’s House of Delegates votes against seceding from Union (1861)
  • US Civil War: New Orleans falls to Union forces during US Civil War (1862)
  • Joan of Arc liberates Orleans for French (1429)
  • WW2: US troops liberated the oldest Nazi concentration camps, Dachau, in Bavaria, West Germany (1945)
  • The Navigators began when founder Dawson Trotman began the work in San Pedro, California (1933)
  • Vietnam War: 50,000 US & South Vietnamese troops invade Cambodia (1970)
  • Irish republicans abandon the post office in Dublin and surrender unconditionally, marking the end of the Easter Rising (1816)
  • WW2: Hitler marries Eva Braun as troops surround Berlin (1945)
  • Flemish woman introduces practice of starching linen into England (1553)
  • First US Rubber patent granted to Jacob F Hummel (1813)
  • The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993 comes into force, outlaws production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons among its signatories (1997)
  • First edition of Peter Roget’s Thesaurus published (1852)

April 30:

  • Roman Emperor Galerius issued Edit of Toleration ending the Great Persecution of Christians (311 AD)
  • Vietnam War: Last US helicopter leaves US embassy grounds, Saigon surrenders (1975)
  • WW2: Hitler commits suicide (1945)
  • US doubles in size through Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  • First presidential inauguration (1789)
  • US Department of the Navy forms (1798)
  • Louisiana admitted as 18th US state (1812)
  • Birth of Orville J. Nave, the U.S. Armed Services chaplain who compiled the Nave’s Topical Bible (1841)
  • Warner Sallman, famous artist who painted The Head of Christ, was born (1892)
  • Charles Dickens’ A Tale Of Two Cities is first published in weekly installments (1859)
  • Boston Pops Orchestra forms (1885)
  • US President Nixon announces the resignation of Haldeman, Ehrlichman (1973)
  • US President Richard Nixon hands over partial transcripts of Watergate tape recordings (1974)
  • The World Wide Web is born at CERN (1993)
  • First practical typewriter finished by Italian Pellegrini Turri (1808)
  • Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France signed the Treaty of Westminster, pledging to combine their forces against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1527)
  • Roman Emperor Honorius issued a decree denouncing Pelagianism which taught that humanity can take the initial and fundamental steps toward salvation by its own efforts apart from divine grace (418 AD)
  • First French colonists in North America, Jean Ribault & colonists, arrive in Florida (1562)

This Week in History 4/17-4/23

HistoryThis Week in History

April 17:

  • Apollo 13 arrives safely on Earth after oxygen tank explosion (1970)
  • US Civil War: Virginia secedes from the Union (1861)
  • 11,745 immigrants arrive at Ellis Island in New York (1897)
  • The Bay of Pigs invasion begins (1961)
  • Charles Henry Parkhurst, preacher who challenged Tammany Hall in New York City where police and organized crime were in cahoots, was born (1842)
  • Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating US Senator Robert F. Kennedy (1969)
  • Ford Mustang formally introduced (1964)
  • WW2: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia surrenders to Germany (1941)
  • Christopher Columbus signs contract with Spain to find Indies (1492)
  • Russia abandons all North American claims south of 54° 40’N (1824)
  • Geoffrey Chaucer tells the “Canterbury Tales” for the first time at the court of English King Richard II (1397)
  • Bayonne Decree by Napoleon I of France orders seizure of US ships (1808)
  • First US school for deaf in Hartford, Connecticut (1817)
  • Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures & Louis B Mayer Co merged to form Metro Goldwyn Mayer – MGM (1924)
  • Canada adopts its constitution (1982)

April 18:

  • US Revolutionary War: Paul Revere and William Dawes warn of British attack in what is now known as “The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere” (1775)
  • Us Revolutionary War: Fighting ceases in the American Revolution, eight years to the day since it began (1783)
  • Thousands of Chinese students continue to take to the streets in Beijing to protest against the government (1989)
  • US Civil War: Colonel Robert E. Lee turns down offer to command Union armies (1861)
  • WW2: James Doolittle bombs Tokyo & other Japanese cities (1942)
  • Great San Francisco Earthquake (1906)
  • Martin Luther would not recant his thesis at the Diet of Worms (1521)
  • Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco (1956)
  • WW2: Pulitzer Prize-winning war correspondent Ernie Pyle was killed by Japanese machine-gun fire (1945)
  • WW1: US Secretary of State Warns Germany that the USA may break diplomatic relations unless torpedo attacks on unarmed ships stop (1916)
  • WW2: “Stars & Stripes” paper for US armed forces debuts (1941)
  • A United States federal court rules that poet Ezra Pound is to be released from an insane asylum (1958)
  • Supreme Court rules states could make it a crime to possess or look at child pornography, even in one’s home (1990)
  • Mount Everest sees its deadliest day when 16 Nepali mountaineering guides are killed in an avalanche (2014)
  • The cornerstone of the current St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican, is laid (1506)
  • First crossword puzzle book published (1924)

April 19:

  • American Revolutionary War: Revolution begins with the Battle of Lexington, the shot heard around the world (1775)
  • American Revolutionary War: New England militiamen begin the siege of Boston, hemming in the British army garrison (1775)
  • Oklahoma City bombing – a truck bomb at Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building kills 168 & injures 500 (1995)
  • First Boston Marathon (1897)
  • American Revolutionary War: John Adams secures Dutch Republic’s recognition of the United States as an independent government, and the Netherlands became first American embassy (1782)
  • American Revolutionary War: Paul Revere is captured by the British (1775)
  • Sally Ride announced as first woman astronaut (1982)
  • US Civil War: Lincoln orders blockade of Confederate ports (1861)
  • Reformers were first called Protestants (1529)
  • Supreme Court outlaws excluding people from juries because of gender (1994)
  • Connecticut finally approves Bill of Rights, 148 years late (1939)
  • British explorer Captain James Cook first sights Australia (1770)
  • Shirley Temple appears in her first movie, Stand Up & Cheer (1934)
  • General Douglas MacArthur ends his military career (1951)
  • Fidel Castro resigns from the Communist Party of Cuba’s central committee after 45 years of holding the title (2011)

April 20:

  • At Columbine High School, two teenage gunman target Christian, killing 15 and wounding 23 (1999)
  • WW2: Germans Nazi troops massacred the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto (1943)
  • First known performance of Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth at the Globe Theatre (1611)
  • Birth of David Brainerd, missionary to the Stockbridge, Delaware and Susquehanna Indians (1718)
  • Klu Klx Klan Act authorizes President Grant to declare martial law, impose heavy penalties against terrorist organizations, and use military force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (1871)
  • The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explodes, killing 11 and causing the rig to sink, causing a massive oil discharge into the Gulf of Mexico and an environmental diaster (2010)
  • WW2: Adolf Hitler is born (1889)
  • Marie & Pierre Curie isolate the radioactive element radium chloride (1902)
  • The first pasteurization test is completed by Frenchmen Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard (1862)
  • WW1: Manfred Von Richthofen, aka The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims marking his final victories before his death the following day (1918)
  • First detective story, Edgar Allen Poe’s Murders in Rue Morgue, published (1841)
  • US Revolutionary War: New York adopts new constitution as an independent state (1777)
  • Territory of Wisconsin created (1836)
  • Pope Gregory IX who instituted the Inquisition (1233)
  • Balfour Declaration recognized, makes Palestine a British Mandate (1920)
  • First check sent by radio facsimile transmission across Atlantic (1926)
  • Pope Eugenius IV issued the bull which asserted the superiority of the pope over the Councils (1441)
  • 136,000 mine workers strike in Ohio for pay increase (1894)

April 21:

  • Traditional date Christ was crucified (33 AD)
  • Thousands of Chinese crowd into Beijing’s Tiananmen Square cheering students demanding greater political and religious freedom (1989)
  • D.L. Moody was converted to Christianity (1855)
  • William Bradford become governor of Plymouth, Massachusetts (1621)
  • Birth of A. W. Tozer, Bible scholar and author of The Pursuit of God and The Root of Righteousness (1897)
  • Rome was founded by Remus and Romulus (753 B.C.)
  • John Adams sworn in as first US Vice President, 9 days before Washington (1789)
  • Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress, on April 25, recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date (1898)
  • WW1: German fighter ace Baron Manfred Von Richthofen “The Red Baron”, shot down and killed over Vaux sur Somme in France (1918)
  • Fire at Ohio State Penitentiary kills 322 (1930)
  • FBI arrested Timothy McVeigh & charge him with Oklahoma City bombing (1995)
  • The Toleration Act was passed by the Maryland Assembly which protected Roman Catholics within the American colony against Protestant harassment (1649)
  • William III & Mary Stuart proclaimed King & Queen, duel monarchs, of England (1689)
  • Death of St. Anselm, Bible scholar, Christian philosopher, and apologist (1109)
  • The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomer Alexander Wolszczan (1994)
  • John Adams sworn in as first US Vice President nine days before Washington (1789)
  • Abraham Lincoln’s funeral train leaves Washington (1865)
  • Mark Twain died (1910)
  • First Lady Lucy Hayes begins egg rolling contest on White House lawn (1878)
  • Elvis Presley’s 1st hit record, “Heartbreak Hotel”, becomes #1 (1956)

April 22:

  • Oklahoma land rush begins (1889)
  • “In God We Trust” first appears on US currency (1864)
  • WW1: First military use of poison gas, chlorine by Germany (1915)
  • US President Washington attends opening of Rickett’s, first circus in US (1793)
  • Spanish American War: US President McKinley orders blockade of Cuban harbors (1898)
  • More than $3.3 million is stolen from the First National Bank of Arizona in Tucson in the then largest US bank robbery in history (1981)
  • Spanish American War: Congress passes Volunteer Army Act calling for a Volunteer Cavalry (1898)
  • Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovers Brazil & claims it for Portugal (1500)
  • Holocaust Memorial Museum dedicated in Washington D.C. (1993)
  • 243 people are injured in pro-democracy protest in Nepal after Nepali security forces open fire on protesters against King Gyanendra (2006)
  • US President Richard Nixon dies (1994)

April 23:

  • Traditional date Christ rose from the dead on the first Easter (33 AD)
  • William Shakespeare dies (1616)
  • Democratic convention in Charleston SC divided over slavery (1860)
  • US Civil War: Robert E. Lee named commander of Virginia Confederate forces (1861)
  • King Brian Boru of Ireland defeats Viking forces at Battle of Clontarf, freeing Ireland from foreign control (1014)
  • Bishop Adalbert, first missionary to the Prussians, was murdered (997 AD)
  • AIDS-virus identified as HTLV-III (1984)
  • United Methodist Church forms (1968)